Bio004, College of the Desert

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  1. Two Major Categories of Cells
    • Two Major Categories of Cells:
    • 1. Prokaryotic cells
    • 2. Eukaryotic cells
  2. Prokaryotic Cells
    • Prokaryotic Cells:
    • a. Smaller of the two cell types.
    • b. First appeared 3.5 billion years ago.
    • c. Cells do not have a nucleus (DNA in cytoplasm).
  3. Eukaryotic Cells
    • Eukaryotic Cells:
    • a. Larger of the two cell types (10X).
    • b. First appeared 2.1 billion years ago.
    • c. Cell does have a nucleus (DNA in nucleus).
  4. Plasma membrane
    Plasma membrane: regulates traffic of molecules between cells and their surroundings.
  5. Fluid-mosaic model
    • Fluid-mosaic model: concept which describes the structure of the cell membrane.
    • i) Fluid: because the molecules can move freely past one another.
    • ii) Mosaic: because of the diversity of proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
  6. Extracellular matrix
    Extracellular matrix: non-living material that separates living cells while holding them together; protects & supports.
  7. Cell junctions
    Cell junctions: structures that connect cells together allowing them to communicate with each other.
  8. Nucleus
    • Nucleus: membrane-enclosed organelle that contains DNA.
    • ALSO: ball-like mass of granules and fibers that produces components of ribosomes in the nucleus.
  9. Nuclear membrane
    Nuclear membrane: surrounds the nucleus; allows the passage of materials between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
  10. Chromatin
    Chromatin: long fibers consisting of DNA molecules and associated proteins (spagetti like).
  11. Chromosome
    Chromosome: single, long fiber of chromatin material.
  12. Ribosome
    Ribosome: site of protein synthesis.
  13. Endoplasmic reticulum
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) : one of the primary regions within a cell for producing an enormous variety of molecules.
  14. 2 types of Endoplasmic reticulum
    • 2 types of Endoplasmic reticulum:
    • 1. Rough ER: studded with ribosomes; synthesizes proteins.
    • 2. Smooth ER: – lacks ribosomes; synthesizes lipids (steroids) and detoxifies poisons.
  15. Golgi apparatus
    Golgi apparatus: receives, refines, stores, and distributes chemical products of the cell.
  16. Transport vesicles
    Transport vesicles: spheres that distribute chemical products.
  17. Vacuoles
    Vacuoles: sacs that develop from ER, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membranes, carrying out a variety of functions.
  18. Chloroplasts
    Chloroplasts: organelles that carry out photosynthesis (only in green plants).
  19. Mitochondria
    Mitochondria: organelles that carry out cellular respiration (in all living organisms).
  20. Endosymbiosis
    Endosymbiosis: situation in which one or more organisms reside within another organism.
  21. Cytoplasm
    Cytoplasm: entire region of a cell between the nucleus and plasma membrane (fluid + organelles).
  22. Cytosol
    Cytosol: fluid portion of cytoplasm.
  23. Cytoskeleton
    • Cytoskeleton: network of protein fibers ex-tending throughout the cytoplasm.
    • Functions:
    • a. Anchors and reinforces organelles.
    • b. Provides shape and support.
    • c. Creates movement.
  24. Cilia
    Cilia: short and numerous; provide movement by a coordinated back & forth motion (rowing).
  25. Flagella
    Flagella: long and few; provide movement by an undulating whip-like motion (propeller).
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Bio004, College of the Desert
2011-06-23 22:09:23
Chapter4 Bio004

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