Chapter 9,10,11,12

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Caroline18
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Chapter 9,10,11,12
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2010-03-03 23:37:14
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Intro to psych ch 9,10,11,12
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  1. the usefulness of certain abilities or traits that have evolved in animals and humans and tend to increase their chances of survival, such as finding food, acquiring mates, and avoiding pain and injury
    Adaptive value
  2. feelings of nausea that are elicited by stimuli associated with nausea-inducing chemotherapy treatments. Patients experience nausea after treatment but also before or in anticipation of their treatment. Researchers believe that conditioned nausea occurs through classical conditioning
    Anticipatory nausea
  3. includes both unobservable mental events (thoughts, images) and observable responses (fainting, salivating, vomiting).
    behavior
  4. a kind of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced by a different stimulus.
    Classical conditioning
  5. involves mental processes such as attention and memory, says that learning can occur through observation or imitation and such learning may not involve any external rewards or require a person to perform any observable behaviors.
    Cognitive learning
  6. says that an organism learns a predictable relationship between two stimuli such that the occurrence of one stimulus (neutral stimulus) predicts the occurrence of another (unconditioned stimulus). In other words, classical conditioning occurs because the organism learns what to expect.
    cognitive perspective
  7. feeling some positive or negative emotion, such as happiness, fear, or anxiety, when experiencing a stimulus that initially accompanied a pleasant or painful event.
    conditioned emotional response
  8. or CR, elicited by the conditioned stimulus, is similar to, but not identical in size or amount to, the unconditioned response.
    conditioned response
  9. or CS, a formerly neutral stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response that was previously elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
    conditioned stimulus
  10. says that classical conditioning occurs because two stimuli (neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus) are paired close together in time (are contiguous). As a result of this contiguous pairing, the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus, which elicits the conditioned response.
    contiguity theory
  11. In operant conditioning discrimination means that a response is emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is reinforced and not in the presence of unreinforced stimuli. In classical conditioning discrimination is the tendency for some stimuli but not others to elicit a conditioned response.
    discrimination
  12. In operant conditioning, extinction refers to the reduction in an operant response when it is no longer followed by the reinforcer. In classical conditioning, extinction refers to the reduction in a response when the conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by the unconditioned stimulus.
    extinction
  13. In operant conditioning generalization is an animal or person emits the same response to similar stimuli. In classical conditioning generalization is the tendency for a stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response similar to the conditioned response.
    generalization
  14. says that if some random actions are followed by a pleasurable consequence or reward, such actions are strengthened and will likely occur in the future.
    law of effect
  15. a relatively enduring or permanent change in behavior that results from previous experience with certain stimuli and responses.
    Learning
  16. stimulus that causes a sensory response, such as being seen, heard, or smelled, but does not produce the reflex being tested.
    neutral stimulus
  17. also called instrumental conditioning, a kind of learning in which an animal or human performs some behavior, and the following consequence (reward or punishment) increases or decreases the chance that an animal or human will again perform that same behavior.
    Operant conditioning
  18. the innate or biological tendency of animals to recognize, attend to, and store certain cues over others, as well as to associate some combinations of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli more easily than others.
    Preparedness, or prepared learning
  19. In operant conditioning, spontaneous recovery refers to a temporary recovery in the rate of responding. In classical conditioning, spontaneous recovery refers to the temporary occurrence of the conditioned response to the presence of the conditioned stimulus.
    Spontaneous recovery
  20. a neural bond or association forms in the brain between the neutral stimulus (tone) and unconditioned stimulus (food). After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus (tone) and acts like a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus (food). Thereafter, the conditioned stimulus (tone) elicits a conditioned response (salivation) that is similar to that of the unconditioned stimulus.
    Stimulus substitution
  21. a technique of behavior therapy in which the client is gradually exposed to the feared object while simultaneously practicing relaxation. Desensitization involves three steps: learning to relax, constructing a hierarchy with the least feared situation on the bottom and the most feared situation at the top, and being progressively exposed to the feared situation.
    Systematic desensitization
  22. associating a particular sensory cue (smell, taste, sound, or sight) with getting sick and thereafter avoiding that particular sensory cue in the future.
    Taste-aversion learning
  23. or UCR, is an unlearned, innate, involuntary physiological reflex that is elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
    unconditioned response
  24. or UCS, stimulus that triggers or elicits a physiological reflex, such as salivation or eye blink.
    unconditioned stimulus
  25. marked by especially abnormal or impaired development in social interactions, such as hiding to avoid people, not making eye contact, not wanting to be touched. Autism is marked by difficulties in communicating, such as grave problems in developing spoken language or in initiating conversations. Autistics are characterized by having very few activities and interests, spending long periods repeating the same behaviors (hand flapping), or following the same rituals. Signs of autism usually appear when a child is 2 or 3 years old (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
    Autism
  26. a treatment or therapy that changes or modifies problems or undesirable behaviors by using principles of learning based on operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and social cognitive learning.
    Behavior Modification
  27. a training procedure through which a person is made aware of his or her physiological responses, such as muscle activity, heart rate, blood pressure, or temperature. After becoming aware of these physiological responses, a person tries to control them to decrease psychosomatic problems.
    Biofeedback
  28. innate tendencies or predispositions that may either facilitate or inhibit certain kinds of learning.
    biological factors
  29. involves mental processes such as attention and memory, says that learning can occur through observation or imitation and such learning may not involve any external rewards or require a person to perform any observable behaviors.
    Cognitive Learning
  30. a mental representation in the brain of the layout of an environment and its features
    cognitive map
  31. every occurrence of the operant response results in delivery of the reinforcer.
    Continous Reinforcement
  32. a relatively brief time during which learning is most likely to occur.
    critical or sensitive period
  33. a continuous written record that shows an animal’s or a human’s individual responses and reinforcements.
    cumulative record

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