SFOS 76/77/78/79

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SFOS 76/77/78/79
2011-06-13 21:09:18
Endocrine Pancreas

SFOS 76/77/78/79
Show Answers:

  1. What is the normal range of blood glucose?
    60 - 160 mg/dL
  2. What are the advantages to prolonged high glucogon/low insulin?
    • Increased use of ketones by brain (saves glucose)
    • Prolongs survival by sparing proteins as fuel for gluconeogenesis
  3. Stress hyperglycemia
    • Stress response of rise in glucagon
    • Increased glucose delivery to underperfused brain
  4. What are the products of the following:
    1. Beta cells
    2. Alpha cells
    3. Delta cells
    • 1. Insulin
    • 2. Glucagon
    • 3. Somatostatin
  5. What is the role of somatostatin?
    Inhibits secretion of both insulin and glucagon
  6. What is the role of insulin?
    • Stimulate glucose and amino acid uptake
    • Stimulate glycogen synthesis
    • Stimulates fatty acid synthesis
    • Stimulates protein synthesis
  7. What is the role of glucagon?
    • Increases glycogenolysis
    • Stimulates gluconeogenesis
    • Enhances ketoacid production
  8. What are the 5 catabolic hormones?
    • Glucagon
    • Norepinephrine
    • Epinephrine
    • Cortisol
    • GH
  9. How do cortisol and GH affect metabolism?
    • Adapt the body to sustained periods of limited food intake
    • Promote use of fat as energy source
    • Facilitate conversion of protein to hepatic glycogen
  10. What is Diabetes Mellitus?
    Relative or absolute deficiency of insulin
  11. What causes gestational diabetes?
    • Sustained insulin antagonism by placental hormones
    • Insulin degradation by placenta
  12. Types of spontaneous diabetes mellitus
    • Type I - insulin dependent (juvenile)
    • Type II - insulin independent (mature)
  13. How does obesity cause Type II diabetes?
    • Obesity causes slight systemic inflammation
    • Leads to proinflammatory cytokine synthesis
    • Cytokines down regulate insulin receptors
  14. Complications of diabetes mellitus
    • Glycation of proteins
    • Accumulation of sorbitol
    • Angiopathies (vascular lesions) - diabetic retinopathy, ischemic attacks
    • Diabetic nephropathy
  15. What is diabetic ketoacidosis?
    • Hyperglycemia and accumulation of ketoacids
    • Results from increased mobilizaion of lipid stores due to relatively high glucagon
  16. Why do patients with diabetic ketoacidosis require fluid/Na replacement?
    Increased blood glucose induces osmotic diuresis