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What are the functions of the ovary?
- Generate mature oocytes
- Produce steroid hormones
Oocyte surrounded by follicle/granulosa cells
Describe follicle development stages
- Primordial follicles - oocyte and single follicular layer
- Growing follicle
- Vesicular follicle
- Mature follicle
- Corona Radiata detaches
- Meiosis I completed, first polar body released
- Mature follicle ruptures - oocyte released
What is an ovarian cyst?
Follicle which fails to rupture and not reabsorbed
Describe the process of luteinization
Ovarian follicular cells and thecal cells form corpus luteum
Hormones in the Follicular Phase
- Growth promoted by increasing LH, FSH
- Estrogen produced by granulosa cells - negative feedback to hypothalamus
Hormones at Midcycle
- Estrogen peaks - shift to positive feedback causing GnRH surge, LH surge, FSH surge
- Stimulates ovulation
Hormones in Luteal Phase
- FSH and LH levels drop
- Corpus leteum produces progesterone, estrogen and inhibin
- If no pregnancy - low ovarian hormones ceases inhibition of hypothalamus
- If pregnant - HCG maintains the corpus luteum
What are the layers of the endometrium?
- Functional layer - shed
- Basal layer
How do cervical secretions change during cycle?
- Copius, watery at mid-cycle - favor sperm transport
- Viscous during rest of cycle
blocked cervical glands
Phases of the endometrium
- Proliferative Phase (5-14) - by estrogen
- Secretory Phase (15-28) - by progesterone
- Menstrual Phase (1-4) - by declining hormones
- Initial secretion from mammary glands
- High in Vit A, Na, Cl, antibodies
What are the components of the Placenta?
- Villi from conceptus
- Decidua from mother
Elements of the Decidua
- Decidua capsularis - covers the conceptus
- Decidua basalis - underlies the conceptus
- Decidua parietalis - endometrium where conceptus did not implant
Placental endocrine functions
- Prostaglandins - labor onset
- Progesterone, Estrogen - maintains pregnancy
- HCG - maintains corpus luteum
- Relaxin - loosening of pelvic joints
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