american government

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Anonymous
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90576
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american government
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2011-06-14 03:00:19
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federalism politics democracy
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american gov. test 1
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  1. POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
    principle of democracy where political authority is in the hands of the people.
  2. POLITICAL EQUALITY
    right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of "one person, one vote."
  3. LIMITED GOVERNMENT
    principle of constitutional gov. a gov. whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
  4. LIBERTY
    freedom from gov. control
  5. POLITICAL CULTURE
    broadly shared values, beliefs and attitudes about how government should function. American political culture emphasizes the values of liberty, equality and democracy.
  6. DIRECT DEMOCRACY
    system of rule that lets citizens vot directly on laws and policies
  7. REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY/REPUBLIC
    system of gov. which the populace selects representatives, who play a big part in gov. decision making.
  8. POLITICS
    conflict over leadership, structure & policies of gov.
  9. TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENT
    system of rule which gov. recognizes no formal limits on power and seeks to eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it.
  10. AUTHORITARIAN GOVERNMENT
    gov. recognizes no formal limits but may nevertheless by restrained by power of other social institutions
  11. CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT
    system of rule that with formal and effective limits placed on the powers of gov.
  12. DEMOCRACY
    system of rule that lets citizens play a role, through elections of public key officals
  13. OLIGARCHY
    gov. in which a small group rules/makes decisions-landowners, military officers wealthy merchants.
  14. AUTOCRACY
    • form of gov. which a single individual rules
    • ex: king, queen, dictator
  15. GOVERNMENT
    institutions & procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled
  16. CITIZENSHIP
    informed and active members of the community
  17. FEDERALISM
    system of gov. in which power is divided by a constitution, between a central gov. and regional governments
  18. SEPARATION OF POWERS
    division of gov. power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making.
  19. BILL OF RIGHTS
    first 10 amendments to the constitution. Ensuring certain rights and liberties.
  20. CHECKS & BALANCES
    each branch of the government is able to participate in and influence activities of other branches.
  21. 3/5 COMPROMISE
    agreement reached at constitutional convention that stipulated for purposes of apportionment of congressional seats that every slave would be counted as 3/5 of a person
  22. BICAMERAL
    having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses
  23. GREAT COMPROMISE
    agreement reached at the constitutional convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of population, but linked representative in the house of rep's to population
  24. NEW JERSEY PLAN
    framework for constitution introduced by William Paterson, which called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population
  25. VIRGINIA PLAN
    framework for constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, which called for representation in national legislature based on population of each state.
  26. CONFEDERATION
    system of government in which states retain authority except for powers expressely delegated to the national government.
  27. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
    america's first written constitution, was the basis of america's national government until 1789
  28. POLITICAL EFFICACY
    ability to influence government and politics
  29. MAJORITY RULE, MINORITY RULES
    democratic principle that government follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority
  30. UNFUNDED MANDATES
    regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimburst by federal government.
  31. NEW FEDERALISM
    attempts by president Nixon and Reagan to return power to states through block grants
  32. DEVOLUTION
    policy to remove a program from level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national governmetn to the state and local governments.
  33. COOPERATIVE FEDERALISM
    type of federalism existing since the new deal era in which grants in aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities, without commanding them, to pursue nationally defined goals. Also known as "intergovernmental cooperation."
  34. CATEGORICAL GRANTS
    congressional grants given to the states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law.
  35. BLOCK GRANTS
    federal grants in aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent
  36. SUPREMACY CLAUSE
    states that laws passed by national government and all treaties are the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision.
  37. JUDICIAL REVIEW
    power of the courts to and if necessary, declare actions of the legislative & executive branches invalid or unconstitutional. The supreme court asserted this power in marbury vs. madison.
  38. FEDERALISTS
    those who favored a strong national government and supported the constitution proposed at the american constitutional convention of 1787
  39. ELASTIC CLAUSE
    aka "necessary and proper clause." Which enumerates the powers of congress & provides congress with authority to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry them out.
  40. STATES RIGHTS
    principle that states should oppose increasing authority of the national government. This principle was most popular in the period before the civil war
  41. COMMERCE CLAUSE
    delegates to congress the power " regulate commerce w/ foreign nations, and among the several states and with the indian tribes." This clause was interpreted by the supreme court in favor of national power over the economy.
  42. DUAL FEDERALISM
    system of voernment that prevailed in the U.S. from 1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments.
  43. FULL FAITH AND CREDIT CLAUSE
    requires states normally honor public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state
  44. NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE
    provides congress with the authority to make all laws "necessary and proper," to carry out it's expressed powers
  45. FEDERAL SYSTEM
    system of government which the national government shares power with lower levels of government such as states.
  46. AMENDMENT
    a changed added to a bill, law or constitution
  47. LIMITED GOVERNMENT
    a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
  48. FEDERALIST PAPERS
    series of essays written by alexander hamilton, james madison and john jay supporting the ratification of the constitution
  49. ANTIFEDERALISTS
    those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government & who were opponents of the constitution proposed at the American constitutional convention of 1787.
  50. what is the significance of shay's rebellion?
    farmers rebelled against foreclosures on debt ridden land.

    protestors scared gov., which led to reform and protestors eventually got some of their demands.
  51. local governments-what are they? where do they derive power? mentioned in the constitution?
    -created by legislatures to take on some responsibilites of state gov's.

    -power comes from state constitution and laws

    -but has no status in constitution.
  52. what is the goal of politics
    to have a share/say in composition of governments leadership and how the government is organized or what it's policies are going to be.
  53. how has the commerce clause helped to increase federal power
    gives congress power to "regulate commerce with foreign nations, among several states w/ indian tribes." This commerce clause was consistently interpreted in favor of ntl. power by the supreme court for most of the 19th century over economy.
  54. how did the great depression change the way we looked at government
    lost trust and faith in the government because of lack of action on Hoover's end until FDR took over.
  55. why is affirmative action controversial
    can result in reverse discrimination and there are beliefs that a society that promotes true equality shouldn't even acknowledge race or gender.
  56. reasons given to american citizens' political apathy
    People don't believe they have any influence anymore.

    leads to apathy, lack of political action and undermining gov.

    result of lack of knowledge about how ppl and politics are related.
  57. declaration of independence vs. articles of confederation vs. the constitution
    declaration was first, then constitution, then articles.

    d.c= "unalienable right," life, liberty and the pursuit..couldn't be abridged by gov. found focus on problems, grievances, aspirations.

    a.c=first written constitution, limited gov. power, relationship between ntl gov & states, congress has little power.

    conf=gave US checks & balances, electoral college, bill of rights, separation of powers & federalism.
  58. why did the british raise taxes on the colonists
    to decrease debt created by the french and indian wars and expenses for protection and for the british navy.
  59. marble-cake federalism
    there are no clear, definable lines/layers in the branches. There mold together like a marble cake
  60. political values in the U.S-what are they and how are they practiced?
    liberty, equality, democracy
  61. what must a good citizen possess
    knowledge, to be informed, able to participate in a political debate, to be an active member of their community.
  62. Congress under the articles of the confederation
    • the relationship between the ntl gov & states was called the confederation.
    • -Articles have congress very little power to be exercised. Congress could declare war & make peace to make treaties & alliances. To coin and borrow $ and regulate trade with native americans and could appoint officers of the US army.
  63. Ramifications of the 3/5 compromise
    northern states opposed this. some believed that if slaves were going to be counted as citizens they should be treated as such. but if slaves were property then why wouldn't other property count towards apportionment.
  64. know how each branch of the government is elected/nominated/appointed and why?
    • legislative-
    • house-2 yr terms, elected directly by the ppl.
    • senate-6 yr terms (staggered so only 1/3 of the senate changes)

    • -collect taxes, borrow $, regulate commerce, declare war, maintain army and navy, all powers belong to the states, unless deemed otherwise by the elastic clause (aka necessary and proper clause)
    • -state's can't issue paper money, tax imports/exports, regulate trade outside their borders, impair obligation of contracts because these are all NATIONAL gov's domain.

    • executive-president-4 yr terms (elected indirectly by electoral college)
    • -can recognize other countries, negotiate treaties, grant pardons & reprieves, convene congress in special sessions and veto congressional enactments.

    • Judicial- supreme court-lifetime terms/appointed by president with an approval of senate.
    • -resolve conflicts between federal & state laws, determine whether power belongs to ntl/state gov's. and settle controversies between citizens and other states.
  65. no child left behind act?
    unprecedented federal intervention in public education, traditionally a state and local responsibility. It's an unfunded mandate requiring the states to develop assessments in basic skills to be given to all students.
  66. 10th amendment?
    powers not delegated to the u.s. by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
  67. way to amend the constitution?
    through the passage of 2/3 house & senate approval/vot. Then gets sent out to the states and 3/4 of the state's legislatures.
  68. 9th amendment?
    the enumeration in the constitution of certain rights, shall not be constricted to deny or disparge others retained by the people.
  69. how has the supreme court interpreted federalism since the mid 1990's?
    with a stronger federal role in the states.
  70. what were the framer's trying to create in regards to a government?
    individual liberty above all by championing liberty by guaranteeing equality & democracy.

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