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2010-03-04 01:24:14

Chapter 1- The Sociological Perspective
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  1. How do our personal characteristics limit or expand our opportunities in life?
    Our personal characteristics influence personal ambition and intelligence. If we are ambitous we are more likely to actively seek opportunities and set goals for ourselves to try to reach. If we are lazy we will be less likely to find opportunities and will probably have lower paying jobs etc. If we are intelligent we will do better in a society that values intelligence and education as ours does. Some people are smarter than others.
  2. How does time (historical time period) limit or expand our opportunities in life?
    During times of war there may be more available jobs but if there is a draft we may have fewer choices-might have to go to war. During times of prosperity economically there will be more opportunities available, whereas when the economy is down we have fewer choices in jobs and consequently other things as well. The level of technology also varies over time.
  3. How does the social structure of society limit or expand our opportunities in life?
    Social structures vary from society to society. One is family: if we are born into a wealthy family or a supportive family we will have more opportunities. Another is government: different governments regulate their people differently, some are very controlling, others are more lax, an example is that some may not allow women to work at certain jobs or join the military. Another is religion: the religous group we belong to (if any) affects how we make choices and what choices we make. Another is education: our level of education is important. People with a high level of education usually have more opportunities in life. Last is environment: where we live and the actual environment is important. Living in a hostile environment or an unhealthy one can limit our opportunities.
  4. Why was the Industrial Revolution so important in establishing sociology as a science?
    Sociology emmerged as a result of the Industrial Revolution. The IR instigated social change, structural change and family change. It spurred new working patterns (working in a factory vs. working at home or on the farm). As factories grew so did cities; people started living more closely together; things like pollution, crime and homelessness were relatively new phenomena. Consequently new ways of thinking evolved; according to Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Adam Smith people became less concerned with moral duties to God and more focus on the pursuit of self-interest. When people are close together ideas spread and evolve quickly.
  5. 1. Characteristics of Structural-Functionalism
    2. Benefits of Structural-Functionalism
    3. Limitations of Structural-Functionalism
    4. Corresponding Sociologist
    • 1. Sees society as a complex system whose individual parts work together to promote solidarity and stability, society is held together by values, rules, and shared practices
    • 2. Commonality and conformity are key; we won't have chaos is everyone is working together and following rules
    • 3. It ignores problems within society, ignoring inequalities of race, gender and social class which can generate conflict. It focuses on society in broad terms like "family" or "social class"
    • 4. Emile Durkheim
  6. 1. Characteristics of Social-Conflict
    2. Benefits of Social-Conflict
    3. Limitations of Social-Conflict
    4. Corresponding Sociologist
    • 1. Society is characterized by inequality which creates conflict, society is structured to benefit some while depriving others, taking individuals out of their natural harmonious position
    • 2. It instigates change, an example is African Americans or women fighting for equal rights. It tries to reduce inequality
    • 3. It tends to ignore how shared values can unify members of a society and how some social structures are beneficial. Implies everything needs changing when some things may not. It focuses on society in broad terms like "family" or "social class"
    • 4. Karl Marx
  7. 1. Characteristics of Symbolic-Interaction
    2. Benefits of Symbolic-Interaction
    3. Limitations of Symbolic-Interaction
    4. Corresponding Sociologist(s)
    • 1. Sees society as the product of everyday interactions of individuals. Individuals construct "reality" as they interact with one another; the meaning we attach to things creates its reality. Individual realities vary and are subjective.
    • 2. Reminds us that we wouldn't have society if it weren't for all the individuals living in it, shows us how individuals actually experience society.
    • 3.Risks overlooking the widespread influence of culture, as well as factors such as class, gender, and race.
    • 4. Max Weber, Herbert Mead
  8. Emile Durkheim and his study
    1. What was the study?
    2. What was his argument?
    3. What were the three types (name and define)?
    4. Which theoretical framework (sociological approach) does he represent?
    • 1. Study on suicide-some people are more at risk to commit suicide
    • 2. He argued that social forces imact the way we live our lives and, more specifically, that suicide was a social phenomenon
    • 3. The three types are: a. Egoistic- the person was not integrated into society enough- ex. Depressed/isolated
    • b. Altruistic- the person was too integrated inot society- ex. Martyrs
    • c. Anomic- there were wild fluctuations in society ex. Great Depression
    • 4. Structural-Functional Approach
  9. What was Marx's concept of alienation?
    The Industrial Revolution ripped individuals out of their natural habitat and created alienation. People were now alienated from the products they created, the process of creation, from our selves and from others.
  10. Which theoretical approach are these examples of?
    The American Revolution
    Civil Rights Movement
    The Rich get richer, the poor get poorer
    Social-Conflict Approach
  11. Which theoretical approach are these examples of?
    I need brakes and a steering wheel equally in order to drive a car safely
    The hospital hires doctors with PhDs and janitors to keep everything running
    Religion gives us moral standards
    Government gives us legal boundaries to keep people safe and happy
  12. Who the heck was Max Weber and what did he think?!?
    He was a German sociologist who believed human ideas shape the world. In general he thought the modern world was full of organization and tradition holds modern society back. He defined rationalization of society which is the historical change from tradition to rationality as the dominant mode of human thought. Modern society becomes "disenchanted" as sentimental ties give way to a rational focus. He thought modernization creates a "rational" society: there are calculations about how things can be done most efficiently and leads to industrialization, capitalism and the rise of the great bureaucracy.