It Stretches from Pakistan across India into Bangladesh in a curve. There is lots of water and fertile soil. It has a good climate with high population density.
List the three most important rivers of South Asia?
Why is the Indus River important?
It is the site of earliest civilization over 4,000 years ago. The river basin is in Pakistan.
Why is the Ganges River Important?
It is a sacred river. Shrines and temples run up and down the banks. The water is used for purification and holy ceremonies.
What is the importance of the Brahmaputra River?
No historical significance. It provides irrigation along with all the rivers.
What is a monsoon and why is it important?
A seasonal wind (wet-summer and dry-winter) that dominates the climate of South Asia. It means climate. Farmers plant their seeds before the wet monsoon to ensure a good season.
How did foreign invaders and traders get into India?
Through the Khyber pass and Bolan Pass located in the Hindu-Kush mountains.
Who were the Aryans?
They were nomadic and warlike people who invaded India in ancient times. They were a cattle based culture that also developed the caste system.
What is the major religion of India?
A polytheistic religion, but all gods are part of the Brahman or single supreme force.
Rebirth of their soul in various forms
Belief that every deed (mental or physical) in this life affects a persons fate in a future life.
Each caste has its own duties and obligations. There is a gaol to improve position in next life by carrying out duties in this life.
Define Caste System?
System in which society was grouped into social groups based on birth. It determined everything about that persons life. It was weakened by urbanization and limited opportunities for social mobility.
What are the different Castes in the Caste System?
Vaisyas-merchants and farmers
Untouchables-trash and sewage workers.
How do you say Untouchables in Hindi?
What is a subcontinent?
It is a large land mass that juts out from a continent.
What are the laws about the �untouchables?
It is illegal but still practiced in villages.
What is the relationship between law and tradition in India?
There is gap between law & tradition that still exists today
What is the Goal of a Hindu?
To end the cycle of birth and rebirth and reach moksha
Does Buddhism exist in India?
The ability or condition of wanting nothing.
What religion were the Mughals?
When did the Mughals rule?
1526 until the British came.
Why were there conflicts between Hindus and Muslims?
Muslims believe in one god, all people are equal, had a strict government and cattle was a source of food.
Hindus had many gods, had an unequal caste system, had a more lenient religion and the cattle was sacred.
What caused the British to move into India?
Decline of the Mughal empire.
How Great Britain keep control of India?
They were too diverse and lacked unity.
Define the British East India Co?
Ruled India from 1757 to 1858, Gained enormous wealth from India, led by Robert Clive, won control of Bengal. They had success in their drive against the French. They appointed local rulers in favor of British East India Company. They forced unequal treaties and were allowed to collect taxes. They set up a law code and court system.
What was the Sepoy Rebellion?
Indians who served in the British army heard rumors that the cartridges for their new rifles were greased with beef or pork fat. They also had to fight in foreign lands. They tried to rebel put were set down.
What were the effects of British rule from 1757 to 1947?
Positive: built railroads, schools, telegraph, irrigation, healthcare, and transportation systems, introduced parliamentary government.
Negative: industry declined, locally made goods disappeared, discrimination, British control.
Define Indian Nationalism?
Pride in and loyalty to ones country, Rejected British rule and demanded independence.
What were some possibilities for Indian Nationalists?
Some wanted to adopt western ways. Others wanted to modernize India and reform the British system. Some wanted to return to Hindu traditions or blend Hindu with Western. Mainly peasants.
What was the goal of the Indian National Congress?
They wanted to gain independence from Great Britain. They were led by Ghandi. They wanted more government jobs for Indians.
Describe Gandhi and his methods?
Use of nonviolent resistance (satyagraha), civil disobedience, refusal to obey unjust laws, non-cooperation with the British, boycott British goods, fasting. He studies law in England. Assassinated by Hindu fanatic in 1948.
Why was India divided in 1947?
The Muslims feared Hindu domination and demanded the creation of Pakistan for Muslims.
Define Parliamentary democracy?
The real power was in the hands of the political party that wins the most seats in Parliament. There is a Prime Minister is leader of that party.
Define Coalition government?
If no party wins a majority in elections, several parties join to rule. They often disagree on many issues.
Define Sikh separatism?
Sikhism is a religion that blended Islam & Hinduism. Sikhs separatists want to break away from India and form a separate country (Punjab). They are monotheistic.
Define Hindu-Muslim clashes:
100 million Muslims still live in India and the 2 religions still clash. There was a Mosque in Ayadyas which is the birthplace of a Hindu god. They destroyed the mosque and put in a temple.
Who was Nehru?
He Led India for 17 years after independence. He wanted modern, industrial nation. He was Ghandis mentee. He was the first Prime Minister of India.
Who was Indira Gandhi?
She was the daughter of Nehru. She becomes the Prime Minister of India but then gets assassinated by Sikh bodyguards in 1984.
Who was Rajiv Gandhi?
He was Indiras son. He became Prime Minister to replace his mother but was assassinated in 1991.
Describe Nehrus rule?
Nehru adopted many principles of socialism to achieve his goals. But in the 1980s, Rajiv Gandhi called for economic reforms, based on Chinese economy. He wanted to reduce government regulation and encourage private enterprise. Also in the 80s, he increased investment of foreign capital stimulated economic growth.
Define the Green Revolution?
New seeds grew more crops, but they needed expensive fertilizer and requires an irrigation system.
Describe the changes in India villages?
Very little change but, they have more electricity, schools, clinics, phones, roads, busses, movies, Tv and radar dishes. They have improved harvests and buy more factory made goods such as tractors.
Describe the conflict in Kashmir?
There is fighting over territory between Pakistan and India. They are trying to become independent. There are lots of troops from all 3 places. The Pakistanis support the rebels against Parliament.
Describe Indias involvement in the Cold War?
They were neutral. They accepted aid from the U.S.A and the U.S.S.R.
How did the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan affect Pakistan:
They had to offer troops, train Afghan resistance fighters and accept 3 million Afghans.
What are the causes of the population explosion in India?
They have better medical care, a higher birth rate and lower infant mortality rate.
What are the effects of the population explosion in India?
Greater population density, strains on limited resources and a younger population.
Describe Indian Urbanization?
Caused by a rapid population growth, cities are very crowded and poor with random cows. Many peasants because there are not enough jobs and houses. There is a great contrast between the rich parts of a city and poor part.
Describe Indians Nuclear situation?
They had nuclear power plants since 1974 but nuclear weapons since 1988. They are pointed at Pakistan.