Adrenal Gland S2M1

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  1. What is the Cortex and the Medulla of the Adrenal gland derived from
    • Cortex - Mesoderm
    • Medulla - Neural Crest cells that migrate from sympathetic ganglion
  2. Near what structures does the Adrenal gland develop in the embryo
    Between the dorsal mesentery and urogenital ridges
  3. At 7 months into development, how far along has the adrenal developed
    70% of the cortex
  4. When does the fetal cortex disappear and the permanent cortex take its place
    Four months after birth
  5. What are the three arteries (and origin) that supply the adrenal gland
    • Superior suprarenal (inferior phrenic)
    • Middle suprarenal (aorta)
    • Inferior suprarenal (renal artery)
  6. The 3 arteries supplying the adrenal gland make up a subscapular plexus in which what three types of vessels arise
    • Arteries of capsule
    • Arteries of cortex
    • Arteries of the medulla
  7. What arteries supply the medulla of the adrenal gland
    • Arteries of cortex
    • Arteries of medulla
  8. What are the three layers of the Cortex of the adrenal gland from capsule to medulla
    • Zona Glomerulosa
    • Zona Fasciculata
    • Zona Reticularis
  9. What type of cells is the Zona Glomerulosa made of
    Columnar or pyramidal cells arranged as rounded or arched cords
  10. How are the cells arranged that make up the Zona Fasciculata
    Straight cords, 1-2 cells thick, perpendicular to the surface
  11. How are the cells arranged in the Zona Reticularis
    Between an anastamosing network with Lipofuscin granules and pyknotic nuclei
  12. What secretes Mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone)
    Zona Glomerulosa
  13. What stimulates the secretion of Mineralcorticoids
    Angiotensin II and Corticotropin (ACTH)
  14. What secretes Glucocorticoids like cortisol
    Zona Fasciculata
  15. What triggers the release of Glucocorticoids
    Corticotropin (ACTH)
  16. What is the primary secretor of Androgens in the Adrenal gland
    Zona Reticularis
  17. What triggers the release of weak Androgens
    Corticotropin (ACTH) in the Zona Reticularis
  18. Where are lipid granules found in the adrenal gland
    Zona Fasciculata
  19. Where does the adrenal cortex store hormones
    It doesn't, they are only made on demand
  20. What is the sequence of products (and organelles) that leads to synthesis Aldosterone
    • Cholesterol
    • Pregnenolone (Mito)
    • Progesterone (SER) (activated by ACTH and Angiotensin)
    • Deoxycorticosterone (SER)
    • Corticosterone (Mito)
    • Hydroxy Corticosterone (Mito)
    • Aldosterone (Mito)
  21. What is the sequence of products for the synthesis of Cortisol
    • Cholesterol
    • Pregnenolone (Mito)
    • Hydroxy progesterone (SER) (activated by ACTH)
    • Deoxycortisol (SER)
    • Cortisol (Mito)
  22. What are the three roles of Glucocorticoids
    • Regulate metabolism
    • Resistance to Stress
    • Depress immune system
  23. What are the negative feedbacks in the formation of Glucosteroids
    • Cortisol inhibits CRH release from Hypothalamus
    • Cortisol inhibits ACTH release from Ant. Pituitary
  24. When stress is in the body, what layers in the adrenal gland get larger
    • Zona Fasciculata
    • Zona Reticularis
  25. What cells secrete Epi and NorEpi
    Chromaffin cells in the Adrenal medulla stored in secretory vesicles
  26. How do the Chromaffin cells get their brown color
    Due to Oxidation of Catecholamines by chromic salts
  27. Chromaffin cells are essentially what type of cells
    Modified sympathetic postganglionic neurons without processes
  28. What are the Chromaffin cells innervated by
    Presympathetic neurons of splanchnic nerves that secrete acetylcholine
  29. Once the Catecholamines are synthesized, where do they go
    They leave the granule and enter the cytosol region
  30. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT)
    Converts Norepinephrine to Epinephrine
  31. In the Medulla, what cell regions primarily make Norepinephrine and which make Epinephrine
    • Periphery cells make Norepinephrine
    • Central cells make Epinephrine
  32. Internally (in the medulla), what triggers Epinephrine synthesis
    Glucocorticoids leaking out of the cortical capillaries
Card Set:
Adrenal Gland S2M1
2011-08-13 15:25:29
Ross S2M1

Micro Anatomy
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