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What is geography?
Geography is the study of the Earth. It includes landforms, natural resources, climate and people.
Why do historians need to study geography?
Geography affects the way people live because it is the reason for a lot of human behavior.
What were the three parts of the Declaration of Independence?
- Basic rights
- British wrongs
- Independent nation
Who were Patriots? Who were Loyalists?
Patriots wanted the U.S. to separate from England. Loyalists wanted to stay a colony of England.
Why was the Battle of Yorktown important? What was it?
- It led to the independence of the U.S.
- In it, the Americans and French trapped the British while they were trying to get supplies at port. It was an American victory.
Why did Europe start exploring?
- all water route to Asia for trade
- spread Christianity
- easier navigation tools
- Marco Polo -China
How did conquistadors looking for gold in America help the country?
Along the way, they claimed lands in the country and helped to populate it.
What were the results of Christopher Columbus' exploration on different groups of people?
- Native Americans - they were taken as slaves and they had their homes taken away from them
- Europe - gained a new interest in exploration after Columbus' success
- Spain - became more wealthy and powerful
- Columbus - became more rich and famous and more of his journeys were sponsored
steps of the slave trade
slaves captured in africa -- Middle Passage -- get ready for presentation -- sold at auctions
Who were Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys and what did they do?
Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys were a group of Vermonters. In 1775, they decided that action needed to be taken against England and leg a surprise attack on Fort Ticondroga, held by the British. They won the fort over when the British surrendered.
Why was the capture of Fort Ti and important victory for the Americans?
The colonists gained vital supplies and a key route into Canada. They also got weapons which they used later on in the war and the resources of Lake Champlain.
Explain the Olive Branch Petition.
- The 2nd Continental Congress wanted to exterminate the upcoming war so they declared loyalty to King George and asked him to repeal the Intolerable Acts because these acts made many colonists want to go to war and break away from England. The King was mad because he thought it was an excuse to request independence so he rejected the petition.
- This petition and its rejection made Americans and the English mad and brought the two closer to war.
List some strengths of America during the Revolutionary War. List some weaknesses.
- had a noble commander (GW)
- could obtain supplies quickly
- not very much money
- no united government
- no Navy
List some strengths of England during the Revoltionary War. List some weaknesses.
- strengths:organized government
- hired Hessians
- Americans were dependent on them
- don't know the land as well
- 90 years at war before
- a while for news and supplies to travel
Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775
The Battle of Bunker Hill was the first major battle of the Revolution in 1775. Before Washington arrived in Boston, 1,200 minute men were led up Bunker Hill near Boston. They fired on British ships in the harbor then moved to nearby Breed's Hill where they dug trenches. The British, who climbed up the hill to attack, were weak and exhausted. The Patriots lacked gunpowder so the Brits won, gaining control of both the hills. The Battle of Bunker Hill was important because it showed that both sides were strong fighters.
Which side of the revolution used guerilla warfare?
only America at first but they both did later on because it was the winning strategy
"Common Sense" was a persuasive pamphlet written by Thomas Paine written in 1776. It was made to convince Patriots to stand up and break away from England. It explained the need to break away from England in one part and put down monarchy (England's govt.) in another. "Common Sense" was important because it turned many colonists into patriots.
a pamphlet used to convince soldiers to keep fighting
Battle of Long Island
- NY = communication between north and south
- Americans waited for British there
- British attacked
Battle of Trenton
- The Americans sailed across the Delaware on x-mas night. They surprised attacked the Hessians (for British) guarding Trenton and took them prisoners. Then the Americans tricked the British. They won. :)
- guerilla warfare: at night, ambush, holiday
Lexington and Concord
- first shots of the revolution were fired
- the british wanted to steal american arms, left late at night
- sons of liberty warned americans
- minutemen were waiting in the morning
- they were attacked in lexington and concord
Battle of Saratoga?
- The British thought they could cut off New England but they failed and Burgoyne had to surrender when he was trapped by Americans.
- Major turning point in the war: ended british threat in new england, gave americans hope, convinced france to become allies with america
- General of American army in the revolution
- first president of the U.S.
- convinced his troops to keep going
Marquis de Lafayette
brought soldiers to help Americans fight and led them
Swamp Fox (Francis Marion)
used hit and run tactics
felt he wasn't getting enough credit in american army so switched to british side. won many american battles
What treaty ended the revolution? What did it say?
- the Treaty of Paris
- England recognized U.S. as separate nation
- extended borders - atlantic - mississippi river
- americans paid loyalists for property that they lost in the war
Articles of Confederation