Japanese Final Grammar

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Anonymous
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9064
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Japanese Final Grammar
Updated:
2010-03-04 00:53:30
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Japanese
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Description:
Grammer for Ch 7-12
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  1. Indirect object
    Person 1 wa Person 2 ni (verb/noun) o verb.

    • Mr. Smith wrote a letter to Mrs. Sasaki. = Sumisu-san wa Suzuki-san ni tegami o kakimasu.
    • denwa o shimasu.
  2. I adjective in a Sentence
    • A wa B desu. = A is B.
    • A wa adj B desu.

    • This pencil is red. = Kore wa akai enpitsu desu. =adj., noun
    • This is Mandi's pencil. = Kore wa Mandi no enpitsu. =noun, noun
  3. I adjectives
    • okii *end in i (ai,ii,oi,ui)
    • chisaii *no particle needed
    • akaii
    • kuroi
    • aoi
  4. Verb tenses
    • Present=masu
    • Past=mashita
    • Present Negative=masen
    • Past Negative=masendeshita
  5. Simple sentence
    Person wa noun(direct object) o verb

    • Shushi o tabemasu.
    • Hon o yomimasu.
    • Hirigana o kakimasu.
  6. when the sentence is combined with counter
    • Ex. Teburu no ue ni ringo ga mittsu arimasu.
    • otoko no hito ga futari arimasu.
    • hagaki ga go-mai arimasu.
    • onna no hito ga nan-nin imasu ka.
  7. Places located
    • Where is the parking lot located?=Chushajo wa doko ni arimasu ka.
    • Where is the parking lot?= Chushajo wa doko desu ka.
    • The train station is in front of the police box.=Koban no ue ni eki ga arimasu.
  8. Location sentence form
    Location ni NOUN ga arimasu

    • -Teburu no ue ni kaban go arimasu.
    • On top of the table there is a briefcase.
    • -Teburu no ue ni nani mo arimasen.
    • On top of the table there is nothing.
    • -Uchi no naka ni dare mo imasen.
    • In the house there is no one.
  9. Locations
    • in front-mae
    • behind-ushiro
    • inside-naka
    • next to-tonari
    • nearby-chikaku
    • below-shita
  10. particle yo
    *put at the end of sentence to call attention or emphasize
  11. What is it??
    (noun)-tte nan desu ka??
  12. and (connector)
    • A and B and C = A to B to C
    • A and B and etc= A ya B

    • ex: I have apples, bananas, and etc.
    • Ringo ya banana ga arimasu.
  13. There is/There are
    • animate=imasu
    • inanimate=arimasu

    Place ni x ga imasu/arimasu

    • ex: There are students in school. = Gakko no gakusi ga imasu.
    • What is in Naha? = Naha ni nani ga arimasu ka.
  14. floors
    -kai/-gai

    • 1-ikkai 6-rokkai
    • 2-nikkai 7-nanakai
    • 3-sankai 8-hachikai
    • 4-yonkai 9-kyukkai
    • 5-gokai 10-jyukkai
  15. ga, wa, to examples
    • Who is Chelsea?= Dare ga Chelsea desu ka.
    • Which bus is going?= Dono basu ga ikimasu ka.
    • Who will come?= Dare ga kimasuka.

    • Micheal-san to ikimasu. = I'm going with Michael.
    • Michael-san to wa ikimasu.= i'm going with Michael, at least.
  16. ga changes to wa

    and -to
    • *when new information is introduced
    • ga=subject marker for new info.
    • wa=subject marker for info. that is already known
    • to= with
  17. This, next, last
    • next friday=next week of Friday= raishu no kinyobi
    • last Monday=last week Monday= senshu no getsuyobi
    • this Wednesday= Wed of this week= konshu no suiyobi
  18. relative time vs. specific time
    • relative specific
    • tomorrow on Thursday (mokuyobi ni)
    • next month on the 12th of April

    (no particle) (need particle ni)
  19. By means of (particle de)
    vehicle + de

    • ex: I will go by airplane
    • Watashi wa hikoki de ikimasu.
  20. Days 11th to 31st
    • 11=juichi-nichi 16=juroku-nichi 21=nijuichi-nichi 26=nijuroku-nichi 31=sanjuichi-nichi
    • 12=juni-nichi 17=jushichi-nichi 22=nijuni-nichi 27=nijjushichi-nichi
    • 13=jusan-nichi 18=juhachi-nichi 23=nijusan-nichi 28=nijuhachi-nichi
    • 14=jyu-yokka 19=juku-nichi 24=nijuyokka-nichi 29=nijuku-nichi
    • 15=jogo-nichi 20=nijui-nichi 25=nijugo-nichi 30=sanju-nichi
  21. Days 1st to 10th
    • 1=tsuitachi
    • 2=futsuka
    • 3=mikka
    • 4=yokka
    • 5=itsuka
    • 6=muika
    • 7=nanoka
    • 8=yoka
    • 9=kokonoka
    • 10=toka
  22. Months
    • Jan.= ichigatsu
    • Feb.=nigatsu
    • Mar.=sangatsu
    • Apr.=shigatsu
    • May=gogatsu
    • June=rokugatsu
    • July=shichigatsu
    • Aug.=hachigatsu
    • Sept.=kugatsu
    • Oct.=jugatsu
    • Nov.=juichigatsu
    • Dec.=junigatsu
  23. Year
    ex: 2010= nisen-ju-nen
  24. x kara y made
    from x to y

    ex: Getsuiyobi kara suiyobi made = from mon. to wed.

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