Bioconcepts - Diabetes

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  1. Type II diabetes
    adult-onset diabetes
  2. abnormally-shaped, dysfunctional structural molecules of the body formed when glucose irreversibly binds to fat, protein, or nucleic acids as a result of chronic hyperglycemia
    advanced glycosylation end products (AGE)
  3. phenotypic similarity in twins
  4. a metabolic waste product produced by the breakdown of muscle protein
  5. a group of metabolic diseases characterized by persistently elevated blood glucose levels and associated abnormalities in lipid and protein metabolism
  6. normal blood glucose levels
  7. the filtering tissue of the kidneys composed of loops of capillaries that lie adjacent to the excretory ducts that connect to the ureters and bladder
  8. nonenzymatic binding of glucose to other molecules such as proteins, fats, or nucleic acids
  9. elevated level of blood glucose
  10. abnormally low levels of albumin in blood
  11. a protein hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas that regulates glucose levels in the body
  12. Type I diabetes
    insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
  13. unresponsiveness of cells to the effect of insulin, reducing their ability to absorb glucose, resulting in hyperglycemia
    insulin resistance
  14. Type I diabetes
    juvenile diabetes
  15. excretion of lipid in urine
  16. a cell signaling system that phosphorylates molecules and is associated with tissue remodeling
    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase pathway
  17. a cluster of metabolic abnormalities defined as any combination of three of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and abnormal blood lipid levels
    metabolic syndrome
  18. the excretion of small but abnormal amounts of albumin, the primary protein within the serum of the circulatory system, into the urine often associated with early kidney damage
  19. a combination of abnormal conditions associated with advanced renal disease consisting of hypoalbuminemia, proteinurea, edema, hyperlipidemia, and lipidurea
    nephrotic syndrome
  20. kidney disease
  21. Type II diabetes
    Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
  22. the cells of the pancreas that produce, store, and release insulin into the bloodstream, thereby regulating blood glucose levels
    pancreatic beta cells
  23. a group of receptor molecules within the cell nucleus that activate transcription of genes that regulate the breakdown and storage of fat
    peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)
  24. excessive thirst
  25. excessive appetite
  26. frequent urination
  27. excretion of large amounts of protein in the urine, often, but not always associated with established kidney disease
  28. a group of pharmacological agents that increase sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin-mediated glucose uptake
  29. diabetes that results from destruction of the pancreatic beta cells causing inability to produce insulin
    Type I diabetes
  30. diabetes caused by either insufficient insulin production by pancreatic beta cells or peripheral insulin resistance
    Type II diabetes
  31. a metabolic waste product produced by the breakdown of protein
Card Set
Bioconcepts - Diabetes
Bioconcepts Diabetes
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