Bio 004, College of the Desert

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  1. Photosynthesis
    Photosynthesis: process in which light energy from the sun powers chemical processes that assemble organic molecules in plants
  2. Chloroplasts
    Chloroplasts: Site of photosynthesis.
  3. Chlorophyll
    Chlorophyll: Green pigment in leaves.
  4. Autotrophs
    Autotrophs: organisms that produce all their own organic matter from inorganic matter. [Generally green plants, algae, & photosynthetic bacteria].
  5. Heterotrophs
    Heterotrophs: organisms incapable of producing organic matter from inorganic matter. [Generally animals, fungi, protozoans, and non-photosynthetic bacteria].
  6. Cellular Respiration
    Cellular Respiration: Aerobic harvesting of chemical energy from fuel molecules.
  7. Aerobic
    Aerobic: Process that requires oxygen.
  8. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

    • Note: Redox (oxidation-reduction reaction) – reaction during respiration in which glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced.
    • Oxidation: the loss of electrons Reduction: the gain of electron
  9. NAD
    • NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide): An electron acceptor.
    • NAD + H+ (electron) → NADH
    • NAD is reduced by accepting a H electron which is then carried to the electron transport chain.
  10. Electron Transport Chain
    Electron Transport Chain: a series of molecules that collect and carry electrons in order to release energy used to make ATP. Locate in: mitochondria of all organisms, chloroplasts of green plants, the plasma membrane of prokaryotes.
  11. Process of Electron Transport Chain
    • Process of Electron Transport Chain
    • 1. H is accepted from NADH.
    • 2. H passes through the ETC until it is accepted by O at the end of the process.
    • 3. ATP is made from ADP producing energy
  12. Metabolic Pathway of Cellular Respiration
    • Metabolic Pathway of Cellular Respiration
    • Stage 1: Glycolysis
    • Stage 2: Krebs Cycle
    • Stage 3: Electron Transport Chain
  13. Glycolysis
    • Glycolysis
    • 1.During glycolysis, a 6C sugar – glucose – is split into two 3C molecules – pyruvic acid.
    • 2.It costs 2 ATP molecules to activate this reaction.
    • 3.NAD accepts electrons from the splitting glucose.
    • 4.4 ATP are generated during glycolysis.
  14. Krebs Cycle
    • Krebs Cycle
    • 1.In preparation for the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid (3C) is converted into acetic acid (2C) and bonded to Coenzyme A forming acetyl CoA.
    • 2.Acetyl CoA (2C) is converted into CO2 (1C).
    • 3.Each 2C molecule generates 1 ATP.
    • 4.Each 2C molecule generates 3 NADH + 1 FADH2.
  15. Cellular Respiration Blockers
    • Cellular Respiration Blockers
    • A.Cyanide & carbon monoxide (CO) block the transfer of electrons from the ETC to oxygen.
    • B.Mitochondria can no longer convert food energy into ATP and the organism dies.
  16. ATP Generation
    ATP Generation: Net total of ATP generated from 1 molecule of glucose is 36 ATP.
  17. Lipid Metabolism
    • Lipid Metabolism
    • A.Carbohydrates are generally converted into lipids for storage.
    • B.Lipids can be used for metabolism and serve better as energy storage.
  18. Protein Metabolism
    • Protein Metabolism
    • A. Protein molecules used in respiration, but only as a last resort.
    • B Protein broken down into amino acid subunits with the removal of the amino group (otherwise converted into toxic ammonia)
    • C. Protein metabolism results from starvation and conditions like anorexia nervosa.
  19. Anaerobic Harvest of Food Energy
    • Anaerobic Harvest of Food Energy
    • A. Anaerobic: Process that does not require O2.
    • B. Fermentation: breakdown of glucose to generate ATP using an electron acceptor other than oxygen
  20. Fermentation in Muscle Cells
    • Fermentation in Muscle Cells
    • A.Glycolysis works anaerobically.
    • B.A net total of two ATP are generated, (34 less than aerobic cellular respiration).
    • C.Without O2, NADH deposits its H electrons with pyruvic acid – continuing the process.
    • D. As pyruvic acid gains electrons, lactic acid (waste product) is produced.
    • E.As lactic acid accumulates, soreness and muscle burning occurs.
    • F.Lactic acid is carried in blood to the liver where it is aerobically converted into pyruvic acid.
  21. Fermentation in Microorganisms
    • Fermentation in Microorganisms
    • A. Microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) also produce lactic acid.
    • B. Commercially these microorganisms are used to produce cheese, sour cream, yogurt, soy sauce, pickles, olives, sausage, pepperoni, and salami.
    • C. The anaerobic pathway yeast cells follow converts pyruvic acid into ethanol and CO2 instead of lactic acid
    • In bread, CO2 causes yeast to rise.
    • Wine contains ethanol while CO2 escapes.
    • Champagne and beer contain both CO2 & ethanol.
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Bio 004, College of the Desert

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