Bio 004, College of the Desert

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  1. Photosynthesis
    • Photosynthesis: conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy of sugar and other organic molecules.
    • Examples: generally green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria.
  2. Chloroplasts
    Chloroplasts: organelles that carry out photo-synthesis
  3. Chlorophyll
    Chlorophyll: green pigment found in chloroplasts.
  4. Stomata
    Stomata (sing. stoma): pores in the epidermis of leaves where gas exchange occurs.
  5. Guard Cells
    Guard Cells: specialized cells in plants that regulate the opening/closing of stomata. {Allow for gas exchange with the air surrounding the leaves and the chloroplasts inside}
  6. Stroma
    Stroma: thick fluid found inside chloroplasts.
  7. Thylakoids
    Thylakoids: elaborate system of interconnected membranous sacs (site of chlorophyll).
  8. Grana
    Grana: stacks of thylakoids (increases surface area for photosynthesis).
  9. Photosynthesis
    • Photosynthesis: Sunlight + 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
    • 1.CO2 enters through stomata.
    • 2.H2O enters through roots.
    • 3.O2 and H2O vapor exit through stomata.
  10. Photosynthesis Road Map
    • Photosynthesis Road Map:
    • 1.NADP: electron carrier unique to plants.
  11. A Photosynthesis Road Map
    • A Photosynthesis Road Map 2 Steps
    • 1.Light Reaction: – converts solar energy to chemical energy Light drives the synthesis of ATP and NADPH.
    • 2. Calvin Cycle: produces sugar from carbon dioxide ATP generated by the light reaction provides the energy for sugar synthesis.
  12. The Nature of Light
    • The Nature of Light:
    • When sunlight shines on pigmented materials, the pigmented color (green) is reflected while the other colors (red & blue) are absorbed.
  13. Chlorophyll
    Chlorophyll a: absorbs blue-violet & red light: Direct participant in the light reactions
  14. Chlorophyll
    Chlorophyll b: absorbs blue & orange light: Indirect participant in the light reactions
  15. Carotenoids
    • Carotenoids: absorbs mainly blue-green light.
    • Absorb and dissipate excessive light energy-Pass energy on to chlorophyll a -Decrease of chlorophyll in the fall, allows persist carotenoids to show through.
  16. How Light Reactions Generate ATP/NADP
    • How Light Reactions Generate ATP/NADP :
    • 1.When a pigment molecule absorbs a photon, one of the pigment’s electrons gains energy.
    • 2.When electrons get “excited”, they become unstable and immediately release energy.
    • 3.Most energy is released as heat – some energy is released as light.
  17. Chemical Inputs
    Chemical Inputs: CO2 from the air; ATP, NADPH from the Light Reaction.
  18. Chemical Outputs
    Chemical Outputs: Energy-rich sugar molecule (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate) used to produce glucose.
  19. The Calvin Cycle
    • The Calvin Cycle:
    • 1.Chemical Inputs
    • 2.Chemical Outputs
  20. C3 Plants
    • C3 Plants: plants in which the Calvin cycle uses CO2 directly from the air.
    • First compound is a 3C molecule; Plants are common and widely distributed; Dry weather can reduce the rate of photo-synthesis.
  21. C4 Plants
    • C4 Plants: plants in which the Calvin cycle uses CO2 derived from a 4C compound.
    • First compound is a 4C molecule: Evolved in hot regions of the tropics: Dry weather doesn’t affect them due to their independence from atmospheric CO2
  22. CAM Plants
    • CAM Plants: plants in which the Calvin cycle uses CO2 that enters the stomata at night, becomes incorporated into a 4C compound.
    • First compound is a 4C molecule: Evolved in arid regions: Stomata open at night while remaining closed during the day
  23. Water-Saving Adaptations
    • Water-Saving Adaptations:
    • 1. C3 Plants
    • 2. C4 Plants
    • 3. CAM Plants
  24. Global Warming
    • Global Warming: slow, but steady rise in Earth’s surface temperatures.
    • Resulting in melting polar ice, rising sea levels, extreme weather patterns, droughts, and the spread of tropical diseases: Aggravated by deforestation.
  25. Greenhouse Effect
    • Greenhouse Effect:warming of the atmosphere caused by CO2, CH4, and other gases that absorb infrared radiation, slowing its escape from earth: Makes the earth hospitable and habitable.
    • CO2 is one of the most important greenhouse gases.
    • Removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis
    • Returned to the atmosphere by respiration, fires, and decomposers
    • Substantial amount locked in forests, organisms, and fossil fuels
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Bio 004, College of the Desert
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