Test one

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Author:
hoving22
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90652
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Test one
Updated:
2011-06-15 00:42:28
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Microbiology
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chapters 1-3
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  1. gave us the word "cell", the begining of the Cell Theory of life
    Robert Hooke
  2. first to observe live microorganisms

    "animicules", bacteria and protozoa
    Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
  3. living things come from dead stuff
    spontaneous generation
  4. microorganisms may come from air

    invented canning
    Spallanzani
  5. All living things can only come from preexisting, living cells
    Biogenesis

    Rudolf Virchow
  6. disproved spontaneous generation, led to the development of aseptic techniques
    Louis Pasteur
  7. heat for 63c for 30 minutes
    classic pasteurization
  8. heat to 72c for 15 seconds
    modern pasteurization
  9. microorganisms migh be involved in diseases
    Germ theory of disease
  10. showed the importance of handwashing by doctors in reducing the incident of childbirth fever
    Semmelweis
  11. used phenol to treat wounds in surgery
    Lister
  12. First to provide direct proof of a single bacteria cause a certain disease

    Bacillus anthracis and anthrax
    Robert Kock
  13. methods used to identify bacteria
    Kochs postulates
  14. father of vaccines, developed first vaccine
    Edward Jenner
  15. Father of immunology
    Jenner
  16. "magic bullet"
    Ehrlich
  17. discovered penicillin
    Fleming
  18. something smaller than any known bacterium
    Iwanowski
  19. showed something different than cellular life
    Wendel Stanley
  20. two name naming system
    binomial nomenclature
  21. established binomial nomenclature
    Lennaeus
  22. Classification order
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species

    King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup
  23. Kingdoms include

    Monera
    archae and true bacteria
  24. Kingdoms include

    Protista
    protozoans
  25. Kingdoms include

    Fungi
    Fungi and mold
  26. Kingdoms include

    Plantae
    Plants
  27. Kingdoms include

    Animalia
    Animals
  28. Classification of 3 domains
    Woese
  29. 3 Domains

    -ancient bacteria like organisms
    Archaea
  30. 3 Domains

    -true bacteria
    Eubacteria
  31. 3 Domains

    -organisms whose celss have a nucleus
    Eukarya
  32. have no nucleus
    prokaryotes
  33. have nucleus
    eukaryotes
  34. Examples of prokaryotes
    bacteria and archaea
  35. single celled
    no nucleus
    cell walls contain peptidoglycan
    reproduce by binary fission
    can use photosynthsis
    Bacteria
  36. structural wall of bacteria
    peptidoglycan ( sugar and amino acid )
  37. no nucleus
    cell walls lack peptidoglycan
    found in extreme environments
    Archae
  38. 3 major groups of archae

    -produce methane as a waste product
    methanogens
  39. 3 major groups of archae

    thrive in high salt environments
    halophiles
  40. 3 major groups of archae

    thrive in hot waters
    thermophiles
  41. eukaryote
    cell wall contains chitin
    reproduce sexually or asexually
    fungi
  42. unicellular
    eukaryote
    include amoeba, paramecium
    can move
    protozoa
  43. photosynthetic
    eukaryotes
    cell wall of cellulose
    unicellular, multicellular/colonial
    algae
  44. not cellular life forms
    core of nucleic acid
    cannot reproduce on their own
    viruses
  45. not alive
    infectious protein particles
    responsible for nine diseases
    All are spongiform and encephalopathys (brain disease)
    Prions
  46. where might you most likely find prions?
    bone marrow and nervous tissue
  47. elements essential to life, big 4
    Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen
  48. C Hopkins CaFe
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, sulfur, calcium, iron
  49. electrons

    4 or more
    accept e-
  50. sharing of e-
    covalent bond
  51. transferring e- btwn atoms
    ionic bonds
  52. weak attractions btwn molecules
    hydrogen bonds
  53. form btwn atoms by sharing one or more pairs of valence e- equally
    nonpolar covalent bonds
  54. example of a nonpolar covalent bond
    O2
  55. unequal sharing of e-
    polar covalent bond
  56. example of a polar covalent bond
    H20
  57. 20x weaker than covalent bonds
    hydrogen bonds
  58. complete transfer of an e- from a donor atom to acceptor
    ionic bond
  59. positively charged ion
    cation
  60. negatively charged ion
    anion
  61. example of ionic bond
    table salt
  62. ionic compounds are called
    salt
  63. rxn requiring energy
    endergonic
  64. rxn releasing energy
    exergonic
  65. types of rxn

    new bonds formed
    synthesis rxn
  66. synthesis rxn taking place within the body
    anabolic
  67. decomposition rxn taking place within the body
    catabolic
  68. the process of losing an electron
    oxidation
  69. the process of gaining an electron
    reduction
  70. factors affecting rxn rate
    • reactants
    • concentration
    • temp
    • catalyst
  71. initial input of energy to start the rxn
    activation energy
  72. meaning two things that have carbon and hydrogen
    organic compound
  73. come apart in water and release H ions
    bases
  74. come apart in water and release OH ions
    acids
  75. takes a lot of heat energy in order to raise temp
    high specific heat
  76. EX

    HCl -> H & Cl-
    Acid
  77. EX

    NaOH -> Na & OH
    Base
  78. pH scale 0-7
    acid
  79. pH scale 7-14
    base
  80. compound that keeps pH constant
    buffers
  81. Fructose, glucose, galactose
    monosaccharides, Carbs
  82. make up 95% of all lipids in the body
    triglycerols
  83. two major components of a triglyceride
    glycerol and fatty acid
  84. proteins are made of
    amino acids
  85. used to attach amino acids
    peptide bond
  86. bond between nitrogen and carbon with a double bond to an oxygen
    peptide bond
  87. visible with unaided eye
    10m to 1mm
  88. visible with light microscope
    1mm to 1micron
  89. visible with electron microscope
    100microns to 1nm
  90. process by which internal and external structures of cells are preserved
    fixation
  91. Simple stains
    • methylene blue
    • crystal violet
    • safranun
    • carbo
  92. chemicals that make dye stick
    mordant
  93. ex of mordant
    iodine
  94. Gram + color
    purple
  95. Gram - color
    red
  96. steps to gram staining
    • crystal violet
    • iodine
    • alcohol
    • rinse
    • safranin
    • rinse
  97. traps crystal violet iodine complex
    du to layer of peptidoglycan in cell wall
  98. large layer of lipids in cell wall allowing crystal violet iodine complex to escape leaving cell colorless
    gram -
  99. used to stain mycobacterium
    acid fast stain

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