Extent to a drug reaches the site of action and is available to produce its effect.
Drugs produced by the process of bioengineering involving recombinant DNA technology.
Amount of drug required for one application or adimistration.
How frequently a drug dose is administered. ie four times a day
Drug Delivery System
Dosage form or device designed to release a specific amount of drug
Any oral route drug administration
Drugs that are administered in minute quantities and stimulate natural body healing systems
Study of the constituents of natural drugs that are responsible for their effect
Study of drugs and their interaction with living systems including chemical and physical properties, toxicology and therapeutics
Use of drugs for the treatment of disease
Science dealing with the study of poisions
The official name of a drug published in the compendium
Describes the molecular structure of a drug. The name determines its activity & side effects
Proprietary name of a drug assigned by the manufacture
Oral solid dosage form containing one or more active ingredoents, plus binders and fillers
Designed to realease in Layers. Disintegrates first in the stomach, then in small intestine.
Slow release to avoid stomach upset, improve absorption or prevent drug distruction in the stomach
Type of Delayed-Reaction Tablet. Do not dissolve in the stomach only the small interstine
Sustained - Release Tablets
Delivers content over time
Delivers content over time.
Film or Sugar Coating
Easier to swallow and Improves taste
Dissolved under the tongue
Dissolves in the cheek pouch
Troches & Lozenges
Dissolve in the Mouth.
Suspensions, Solutions, Syrups, Elixirs, Tinctures and Emulsions
Contain liquid or granules within an oval casing.
Liquid containing undissolving particles (solute). Must be shaken before use & can be administered orally, topically, or rectally.
Liquid dosage form where drugs are completely dissolved.
Liquid drug form with high concentration of sucrose
Liquid drug form containing between 5-40% alcohol
Liquid drug form containing 17-80% alcohol
Liquid drug fom similar to suspension. Drugs suspended in oil (o/w) Suspended in water (w/o)
Semisolid preparations containing active ingredients in a petrolatum or another oily base
Semisolid emulsions. Vanishing creams are higher in water content (o/w). Cold creams are higher in oil (w/o)
Solid or semisolid dosage forms shaped and intended for insertion into a bodily function. Melt at body temp dispersing medicine
Controlled release devices that deliver medication across skin and into regular circulation.
Injectioned or infused directly into the blood vessel, muscle, skin or joint
Solutions Injected or infused directly into a vein
Solutions or suspensions injected deep into a skeletal muscle
Solutions and suspensuons injected just beneath the skin
Solutions are injected directly into a joint
Solutions are injected into the dermal layer ( allergy and TB tests )
Solutions are injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid
Device that turns solutions into vapors that can be inhaled
Study of structural and functional changes that are produced by disease
Effects which extend beyond the area of a drugs administration.
Effects which do not extend beyond the area of a drugs administration.
One of the most effective ways to rapidly deliver drugs locally or into general circulation
Selection of Administration Route
Based on the drug properties, ease of administration, therapeutic objectives and pathophysiology.
Process involving the movement of drug molecules from administration site to the circulatory system
Drug that shows no statistical differences in the rate and extent of absorption when it is taken in the same strength, dosage form and route of administration as a brand name product.
Process of drug metabolism in the body that transforms a drug to a more active, equally active, or inactive metabolite
Passive movement of molecules across cell membranes from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Procress of movement of the drug from the circulatory system across barrier membranes, to the site of drug action
Duration of Action
Times between the onset of action and discontinuation of drug action.
Process that results in drug removal from the body and discontinuation of drug action
Protein capable of causing a chemical reaction. Enzymes may increase the metabolism of drugs.
Process whereby the liver metabolizes nearly all of a drug before it passes into the general circulation
Half-Life (T 1/2)
Length of time is takes for the drug concentration to be reducued by half. 8 half lives to fully eliminate
Chemical process involving the release of a proton (H+). Ionized drug molecules may have a positive or negative charge
Biochemical process involving transformation of active drugs to a compound that can be easily eliminated
Product of drug metabolism. Metabolites may be an inactivate drugs or active drugs with equal or greater activity than the parent drug
Onset of Action
Time it takes a drug to reach the concentration necessary to produce a therapeutic effect
Maximum drug effect that a drug dose can produce once maximum concentration is reached
Contains the same active ingredient as the brand name drug; however, the strength and dosage form may be different
Drug that contains identical amount of active ingredients as a brand name drug but may have different inactive ingredients; be manufactured in a different dosage form; and exhibit different rates of absorption
Science dealing with the dynamic process a drug undergoes to produce ita therapeutic effect
Drug administered in an inactive form that activated once metabolized
Drug that contain different active ingredient(s) than the brand name drug yet produces the same desired therapeutic outcome
Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination
Factors Effecting Absorption
Characteristics of the drug, the dosage form, route of administration, human anatomy and physiology.
Diffusion of a drug from an area of high concentration to low concentration. Most drugs are passively transported
Involve mechanisms that permit and carry the drug to move across cell membranes without regard to concentration
Measure of the acidic or basic nature of a substance.
1-6.9 - Acidic,
7 - Neutral,
7+ - Basic (Alkaline)
Factors Effecting Distribution
Properties of the drug, extent of drug binding to blood proteins, blood supply to the region and ability of the drug to cross natural body barriers
Factors Effecting Metabolism
Liver Function, Disease, Age, Drug Interactions, Genetics, Nutrition and Gender
Filter the blood as it passes through the kidneys
Factors Effecting Elimination
Kidney Function, Disease, Drug Ionization, Drug Interactions
Attraction that the receptor site has for a drug
Drug that binds to its receptor site and stimulates a cellular response
Drug that binds to a receptor site but does nt peoduce an action, only block the action of others.
A drug must interact or bind with targeted cells on the body if an action is to be produced
Measure of the drug's effectiveness
Serious adverse reaction that occurs in the liver
Unexpected Drug Reaction
Drug that has affinity and activity. It can switch "on" a receptor that is switched off or switch "off" an activated receptor
Mechanism of Action (MOA)
Manner in which a drug produces its effect
Serious adverse effect that occurs in the kidney
Drug that binds to the same receptor site as the antagonist or an alternative receptor site, preventing the agonist from binding to and producing its desired action
Drug that behaves like an agonist under some conditions and acts like an antagonists under different conditions
Study of drugs and their action on the living organism
Use of drugs in the treatment of disease.
The amount of drug required to produce a response. The effective dose concentration.
Location of drug-cell binding
Therapeutic Index (TI)
Ratio of the effective dose to the lethal dose. Wide is safe; Narrow less safe
The stimulation of a second receptor site in order for desired drug effect to be produced.
Shows a drugs relative efficacy and potency. Ie steep curve means a small change in dose creates a large response
Reached when receptor sites are saturated or at their maximum possible effect
Patient Physiological Factors
Age, Weight, Gender, Genetics, Disease, Pregnancy
A patients excessive reaction to a drug due to hypersensitivity. Mild rash to anaphylactic shock
Reapeat exposure to a drug can cause a decrease in response to it
ADRs which produce harm to a developing fetus
Drugs and natural products which stimulate the growth of cancer cells
A patients correct and religeous use of their pharmatherapy.
Drug Adherence Factors
Patient belief that it is beneficial; ADRs; Lack of routine; resonable scheduling; ease of administration and affordability.
Increased drug effect when a second SIMILAR drug is added to the therapy. The effect is greater then either drug alone. Sleeping pills plus alcohol.
Drug-drug or Food-drug interaction that causes decrease in drug function
Condition under which a drug is not indicated and should not be administered
Drugs which can worsen a patients medical comdition and should be avoided
Reaction that occurs when two or more drugs are administered at the same time
Altered drug response when a drug is consumed with certain foods
Error made in the process of prescribing, transcribing, preparing, dispensing or administration
Process where a drug acting at a different site, increases potency of another drug yet produces no effect if taken alone
Drug-drug or Food-drug interaction which produces a greater effect that either drug could produce on their own. Warfarin plus blood thinners
Two drugs that produce similar effects and side effects. May belong to the same therapeutic class
Solid particles that form in IV solutions if acids and bases are mixed. BAD!
Factors Effecting Transcription Errors
Miscommunication, Poor handwritting, similar drug names, misuse of decimals and zeros, wrong abbrevs and measurement confusion
Avoiding Medication Errors
Verify spelling and strength; verify unfamiliar abbrevs; never guess; double checks; check identification; verify calculations; check labels