Unit 1- 4.txt

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Cloe
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90670
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Unit 1- 4.txt
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2011-06-14 20:01:41
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Intro Pharmacology
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Pharmacology basics
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  1. Bioavailability
    Extent to a drug reaches the site of action and is available to produce its effect.
  2. Biopharmaceuticals
    Drugs produced by the process of bioengineering involving recombinant DNA technology.
  3. Dosage Forms
    Drug Formulation
  4. Dose
    Amount of drug required for one application or adimistration.
  5. Dosing Schedule
    How frequently a drug dose is administered. ie four times a day
  6. Drug Delivery System
    Dosage form or device designed to release a specific amount of drug
  7. Enteral
    Any oral route drug administration
  8. Homeopathic Medicine
    Drugs that are administered in minute quantities and stimulate natural body healing systems
  9. Materia Medica
    Medical Materials
  10. Pharmacognosy
    Study of the constituents of natural drugs that are responsible for their effect
  11. Pharmacology
    Study of drugs and their interaction with living systems including chemical and physical properties, toxicology and therapeutics
  12. Pharmacotherapy
    Use of drugs for the treatment of disease
  13. Toxicology
    Science dealing with the study of poisions
  14. Generic Name
    The official name of a drug published in the compendium
  15. Chemical Name
    Describes the molecular structure of a drug. The name determines its activity & side effects
  16. Brand Name
    Proprietary name of a drug assigned by the manufacture
  17. Tablets
    Oral solid dosage form containing one or more active ingredoents, plus binders and fillers
  18. Repeat-Action Tablets
    Designed to realease in Layers. Disintegrates first in the stomach, then in small intestine.
  19. Delayed-Action Tablet
    Slow release to avoid stomach upset, improve absorption or prevent drug distruction in the stomach
  20. Enteric-Coated Tablet
    Type of Delayed-Reaction Tablet. Do not dissolve in the stomach only the small interstine
  21. Sustained - Release Tablets
    Delivers content over time
  22. Time-Release Tablet
    Delivers content over time.
  23. Film or Sugar Coating
    Easier to swallow and Improves taste
  24. Sublingual Tablet
    Dissolved under the tongue
  25. Buccal Tablet
    Dissolves in the cheek pouch
  26. Troches & Lozenges
    Dissolve in the Mouth.
  27. Oral Liquids
    Suspensions, Solutions, Syrups, Elixirs, Tinctures and Emulsions
  28. Capsules
    Contain liquid or granules within an oval casing.
  29. Suspensions
    Liquid containing undissolving particles (solute). Must be shaken before use & can be administered orally, topically, or rectally.
  30. Solutions
    Liquid dosage form where drugs are completely dissolved.
  31. Syrups
    Liquid drug form with high concentration of sucrose
  32. Elixirs
    Liquid drug form containing between 5-40% alcohol
  33. Tincture
    Liquid drug form containing 17-80% alcohol
  34. Emulsions
    Liquid drug fom similar to suspension. Drugs suspended in oil (o/w) Suspended in water (w/o)
  35. Ointments
    Semisolid preparations containing active ingredients in a petrolatum or another oily base
  36. Creams
    Semisolid emulsions. Vanishing creams are higher in water content (o/w). Cold creams are higher in oil (w/o)
  37. Suppositories
    Solid or semisolid dosage forms shaped and intended for insertion into a bodily function. Melt at body temp dispersing medicine
  38. Transdermal Patches
    Controlled release devices that deliver medication across skin and into regular circulation.
  39. Parental drugs
    Injectioned or infused directly into the blood vessel, muscle, skin or joint
  40. Intravenous
    Solutions Injected or infused directly into a vein
  41. Intramuscular
    Solutions or suspensions injected deep into a skeletal muscle
  42. Subcutaneous
    Solutions and suspensuons injected just beneath the skin
  43. Intraarticular
    Solutions are injected directly into a joint
  44. Intradermal
    Solutions are injected into the dermal layer ( allergy and TB tests )
  45. Intrathecal
    Solutions are injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid
  46. Nebulizer
    Device that turns solutions into vapors that can be inhaled
  47. Pathophysiology
    Study of structural and functional changes that are produced by disease
  48. Systemic Effect
    Effects which extend beyond the area of a drugs administration.
  49. Local Effect
    Effects which do not extend beyond the area of a drugs administration.
  50. Inhalation
    One of the most effective ways to rapidly deliver drugs locally or into general circulation
  51. Selection of Administration Route
    Based on the drug properties, ease of administration, therapeutic objectives and pathophysiology.
  52. Absorption
    Process involving the movement of drug molecules from administration site to the circulatory system
  53. Bioequivalent drug
    Drug that shows no statistical differences in the rate and extent of absorption when it is taken in the same strength, dosage form and route of administration as a brand name product.
  54. Biotransformation
    Process of drug metabolism in the body that transforms a drug to a more active, equally active, or inactive metabolite
  55. Diffusion
    Passive movement of molecules across cell membranes from an area of high concentration to low concentration
  56. Distribution
    Procress of movement of the drug from the circulatory system across barrier membranes, to the site of drug action
  57. Duration of Action
    Times between the onset of action and discontinuation of drug action.
  58. Elimination
    Process that results in drug removal from the body and discontinuation of drug action
  59. Enzyme
    Protein capable of causing a chemical reaction. Enzymes may increase the metabolism of drugs.
  60. First-Pass Effect
    Process whereby the liver metabolizes nearly all of a drug before it passes into the general circulation
  61. Half-Life (T 1/2)
    Length of time is takes for the drug concentration to be reducued by half. 8 half lives to fully eliminate
  62. Hydrophilic
    Water Loving
  63. Hydrophobic
    Water Hating
  64. Ionization
    Chemical process involving the release of a proton (H+). Ionized drug molecules may have a positive or negative charge
  65. Lipid
    Fat-like substance
  66. Lipophilic
    Lipid Loving
  67. Metabolism
    Biochemical process involving transformation of active drugs to a compound that can be easily eliminated
  68. Metabolite
    Product of drug metabolism. Metabolites may be an inactivate drugs or active drugs with equal or greater activity than the parent drug
  69. Onset of Action
    Time it takes a drug to reach the concentration necessary to produce a therapeutic effect
  70. Peak Effect
    Maximum drug effect that a drug dose can produce once maximum concentration is reached
  71. Pharmaceutical Alternative
    Contains the same active ingredient as the brand name drug; however, the strength and dosage form may be different
  72. Pharmaceutical Equivalent
    Drug that contains identical amount of active ingredients as a brand name drug but may have different inactive ingredients; be manufactured in a different dosage form; and exhibit different rates of absorption
  73. Pharmacokinetics
    Science dealing with the dynamic process a drug undergoes to produce ita therapeutic effect
  74. Prodrug
    Drug administered in an inactive form that activated once metabolized
  75. Therapeutic Alternative
    Drug that contain different active ingredient(s) than the brand name drug yet produces the same desired therapeutic outcome
  76. Pharmacokinetic Phases
    Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination
  77. Factors Effecting Absorption
    Characteristics of the drug, the dosage form, route of administration, human anatomy and physiology.
  78. Passive Transport
    Diffusion of a drug from an area of high concentration to low concentration. Most drugs are passively transported
  79. Active Transport
    Involve mechanisms that permit and carry the drug to move across cell membranes without regard to concentration
  80. pH
    Measure of the acidic or basic nature of a substance.
  81. pH Levels
    • 1-6.9 - Acidic,
    • 7 - Neutral,
    • 7+ - Basic (Alkaline)
  82. Factors Effecting Distribution
    Properties of the drug, extent of drug binding to blood proteins, blood supply to the region and ability of the drug to cross natural body barriers
  83. Factors Effecting Metabolism
    Liver Function, Disease, Age, Drug Interactions, Genetics, Nutrition and Gender
  84. Nephrons
    Filter the blood as it passes through the kidneys
  85. Factors Effecting Elimination
    Kidney Function, Disease, Drug Ionization, Drug Interactions
  86. Affinity
    Attraction that the receptor site has for a drug
  87. Agonist
    Drug that binds to its receptor site and stimulates a cellular response
  88. Antagonist
    Drug that binds to a receptor site but does nt peoduce an action, only block the action of others.
  89. Drug-Receptor Theory
    A drug must interact or bind with targeted cells on the body if an action is to be produced
  90. Efficacy
    Measure of the drug's effectiveness
  91. Hepatoxicity
    Serious adverse reaction that occurs in the liver
  92. Idiosyncratic Reaction
    Unexpected Drug Reaction
  93. Inverse Agonist
    Drug that has affinity and activity. It can switch "on" a receptor that is switched off or switch "off" an activated receptor
  94. Mechanism of Action (MOA)
    Manner in which a drug produces its effect
  95. Nephrotoxicity
    Serious adverse effect that occurs in the kidney
  96. Noncompetitive Antagonist
    Drug that binds to the same receptor site as the antagonist or an alternative receptor site, preventing the agonist from binding to and producing its desired action
  97. Partial Agonist
    Drug that behaves like an agonist under some conditions and acts like an antagonists under different conditions
  98. Pharmacodynamics
    Study of drugs and their action on the living organism
  99. Pharmacotherapeutics
    Use of drugs in the treatment of disease.
  100. Potency
    The amount of drug required to produce a response. The effective dose concentration.
  101. Receptor Site
    Location of drug-cell binding
  102. Therapeutic Index (TI)
    Ratio of the effective dose to the lethal dose. Wide is safe; Narrow less safe
  103. Second Messenger
    The stimulation of a second receptor site in order for desired drug effect to be produced.
  104. Dose-Response Curve
    Shows a drugs relative efficacy and potency. Ie steep curve means a small change in dose creates a large response
  105. Ceiling Effect
    Reached when receptor sites are saturated or at their maximum possible effect
  106. Patient Physiological Factors
    Age, Weight, Gender, Genetics, Disease, Pregnancy
  107. Immunologic Factor
    A patients excessive reaction to a drug due to hypersensitivity. Mild rash to anaphylactic shock
  108. Desensitization
    Reapeat exposure to a drug can cause a decrease in response to it
  109. Teratogenicity
    ADRs which produce harm to a developing fetus
  110. Carcinogenicity
    Drugs and natural products which stimulate the growth of cancer cells
  111. Drug Adherence
    A patients correct and religeous use of their pharmatherapy.
  112. Drug Adherence Factors
    Patient belief that it is beneficial; ADRs; Lack of routine; resonable scheduling; ease of administration and affordability.
  113. Additive Effect
    Increased drug effect when a second SIMILAR drug is added to the therapy. The effect is greater then either drug alone. Sleeping pills plus alcohol.
  114. Antagonism
    Drug-drug or Food-drug interaction that causes decrease in drug function
  115. Drug Contraindication
    Condition under which a drug is not indicated and should not be administered
  116. Drug-disease Contraindication
    Drugs which can worsen a patients medical comdition and should be avoided
  117. Drug-drug Interaction
    Reaction that occurs when two or more drugs are administered at the same time
  118. Drug-food Interaction
    Altered drug response when a drug is consumed with certain foods
  119. Medication Error
    Error made in the process of prescribing, transcribing, preparing, dispensing or administration
  120. Potentiation
    Process where a drug acting at a different site, increases potency of another drug yet produces no effect if taken alone
  121. Synergistic Effect
    Drug-drug or Food-drug interaction which produces a greater effect that either drug could produce on their own. Warfarin plus blood thinners
  122. Therapeutic Duplication
    Two drugs that produce similar effects and side effects. May belong to the same therapeutic class
  123. Precipitate
    Solid particles that form in IV solutions if acids and bases are mixed. BAD!
  124. Factors Effecting Transcription Errors
    Miscommunication, Poor handwritting, similar drug names, misuse of decimals and zeros, wrong abbrevs and measurement confusion
  125. Avoiding Medication Errors
    Verify spelling and strength; verify unfamiliar abbrevs; never guess; double checks; check identification; verify calculations; check labels

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