Unit 3

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  1. Heart
    muscle that functions in pumping blood through vessels of the cardiovascular system
  2. Atria lie ___________-
    Ventricles lie _____________
    Blood flows _________
    • posterior
    • anterior
    • horizontally
  3. Structures that protect the heart
    • anteriorly: sternum
    • posteriorly: thoracic vertebrae
    • laterally: ribs, intercostal muscles, lungs
    • pericardium: touch connective tissue sac that encloses the heart
  4. Pericardium
    • -sac that encloses the heart
    • -outer layer blends with the central tendon of the diaphragm inferiorly
    • -superiorly and posteriorly, the fibrous layer blends with the major blood vessels of the heart: SVC, aorta, and pulmonary trunk
    • - myocardium: cardiac muscle
  5. Endocardium: inner epithelial lining of the chambers of the heart
  6. Sternocostal surface
    lying adjacent to the sternum and costal cartilages
  7. Diaphragmatic Surface
    adjacent to the diaphragm
  8. Pulmonary surface
    adjacent to the medial surface of the left and right lung
  9. Apex
    rounded projection of the heart that points inferiorly and to the left
  10. Base
    generally the area where the great vessels attach to the heart
  11. Great vessels
    • pulmonary trunk
    • aorta
    • superior vena cava
  12. Auricles
    both the right and left atria have ear-like appendages attached to the lateral surface of the atria
  13. Right Atrium
    • - a vertical muscular ridge is seen on the posterior wall of the RA: crista terminalis
    • - from the crista terminalis are muscular ridge-like extensions called musculi pectinati or pectinate muscles (these are found in the RA and then right and left auricle
    • - 3 openings: SVC, IVC, opening of the coronary sinus
  14. SVC
    main veing returning blood from the upper half of the body
  15. IVC
    main veing returning blood from the lower half of the body
  16. Opening of the coronary sinus
    venous chamber located on the posterior surface of the heart; recieves the veins that drain the heart itself; opens into the RA just anterior and superior to the IVC
  17. Interatrial Septum
    partition between the RA and LA

    on this septum in the RA lies an oval depression: fossa ovalis; this is a remnant of a foramen that in the fetal stage of development existed between the RA and LA; opening is called foramen ovale: it closes at birth and remains in the adult as a fossa ovalis
  18. Tricuspid Valve
    • right atrioventricular
    • RA - RV

    functions in closing during the contraction of the RV; when it is closed it will precent backflow of blood from the RV to the RA

    the valve is held in a closed position via the chordae tenineae that are attached to the lower surface of the cusps and are thus not everted into the atrium
  19. Valve
    mechanical device that will allow for flow of blood in 1 direction only, thus precenting retrograde flow
  20. Atrioventricular Valves
    tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral)

    • 3 cusps: flaps of connective tissue
    • chordae tendineae: connective tissue cords that attach to the lower surface of the cusps
    • papillary muscle: internal folds of ventricular muscle that give attachment to the chordae tendineae
  21. Right Ventricle
    • - internal surface of the ventricle consists of irregular ridge-like projections of muscle called trabeculae carneae
    • - moderator band contains important fibers of the conduction system of the heart
    • - openings: tricuspid valve and the pulmonary trunk: blood will leave the LV and enter the pulmonary trunk through the pumonary semilunar valve
  22. Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
    exits merely as pocket-like flaps surrounding an opening

    3 flaps or cusps: free edge of each cusp has a small central thickening of fibrous tissue called the nodule
  23. Pulmonary Circulation
    Blood will flow through the pulmonary trunk into the R and L pulmonary arteries, to the R and L lungs

    In the lungs, blood will give off CO2 and receive O2

    oxygenated blood will return to the heart via 4 pulmonary veins which enter the LA
  24. Left Atrium
    musculi pectinati is located only in the left auricle

    main part is taken up by the 4 openings of the veins.

    only other opening is the biscuspid or mitral valve
  25. Biscuspid Valve
    left atrioventricular; mitral

    papillary muscles and chordae tenineae

    contains 2 cusps
  26. Left Ventricle
    Major difference between the RV and LV is that the LV is usually twice as thick as the RV. This is because the RV must pump blood to 1 organ (lungs) whereas the LV pumps blood to all the other organs
  27. Aortic Semilunar Valve
    LV - Aorta

    3 cusps
  28. Blood Vessels
    structures that carry blood from the heart to the organs of the body and back to the heart again
  29. Lumen
    the space within the blood vessel
  30. Artery
    vessel that carries blood away from the heart; artery walls are composed of smooth muscle and elastic fibers that allow for extension of the vessels and the carrying of a pulse
  31. Arterioles
    small arteries that arise via branching of large arteries
  32. Capillary Bed
    connections between arterioles and venules

    oxygen and nutrients pass from the blood into the tissues and where carbon dioxide and waste materials pass from the tissues into the blood
  33. Venules
    small veins formed by the junction of a number of capillaries
  34. Vein
    formed by tributaries and carry blood back to the heart

    have a thinner wall that the corresponding artery

    contain valves that allow for the flow of blood in only 1 direction

    blood moves past these valves via the contraction of surrounding muscles
  35. Lymphatic capillaries
    pick up the excess fluid and differ from blood capillaries in that they are enothelial tubes that begin blindly

    excess fluid = lymph
  36. Lymphatic system route
    blood capillary - lymphatic capillary - afferent vessel - lymph node - efferent vessel - vein
  37. Lymph nodes are prevalent in what areas?
    groin (inguinal region), neck, axilla
  38. Right Lymphatic Duct
    drains the right half of the head, neck, chest, and upper right limb
  39. Thoracic Duct
    drains the rest of the body
  40. Subclavian artery changes to axillary artery after
    passing the lateral border of rib 1
  41. You see darkness if
    the ophthalmic artery is blocked
  42. axillary artery changes to brachial artery after
    passing inferior border of teres major
  43. External iliac
    supplies lower limb
  44. internal iliac
    supplies urinary bladder and pelvis
  45. common iliac
    supplies pelvis and lower limb
  46. inferior mesenteric
    supplies end of large intestine
  47. gonadal
    supplies ovaries and testes
  48. renal
    supplies kidneys
  49. superior mesenteric
    supplies pancreas, duodenum, small intersting, and a majority of large intestine
  50. common hepatic
    supplies liver, stomach, gall bladder, and duodenum
  51. splenic
    supplies spleen, stomach, and pancreas
  52. left gastric
    supplies stomach and esophagus
  53. celiac trunk
    • splenic
    • left gastric
    • common hepatic
  54. external iliac becomes femoral after
    it passed the inguinal ligament
  55. anterior tibial changes it name
    when it passes the imaginary line between the medial and lateral malleous
  56. medial planter artery
    supplies the foot
  57. greater saphenous vein
    drains into femoral vein
  58. lesser saphenous vein
    drains into popiteal vein
  59. protal vein
    goes to liver

    only blood from abdominal structures
  60. Respiratory System
    system concerned with gas transport and exchange
  61. Conductive Phase
    concerned with the movement of gases from the outer environment through the respiratory tubes to the lungs
  62. Gas Exchange Phase
    concerned with the exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and the air sacs of the lungs
  63. Repiratory System structures
    • nasal vaity (oral cavity)
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • lungs
  64. Trachea
    • - cartilaginous and membranous tube extending from the larynx above to the point at which is bifurcates into 2 primary bronchi below
    • - windpipe by laymen
    • - 15 cm in length in vivo
    • - composed of a series of 16-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage so that each one almost encircles the lumen
    • - anterior to the esophagus
  65. Bronchi
    trachea terminates by bifurcating into 2 primary bronchi (R and L primary bronchus)
  66. Right primary bronchus
    • - wider, shorter and straighter than the left
    • - 2.5 cm
    • - enters the right lung at the hilus of the right lung and divides into 3 secondary bronchi, 1 for each lobe
  67. Left Primary Bronchus
    smaller in caliber but twice as long as the right (5 cm)

    • - makes more of an acute angle with the trachea: objects falling through would most likely lodge in the right primary bronchus since it is more in line with the trachea than the right
    • - enters through the hilus and divides into 2 secondary bronchi, 1 for each lobe

    tertiary bronchi then bronchioles
  68. Difference between bronchi and bronchioles
    Bronchiloes are much smaller and more numerous

    bronchioles do not require cartilage in their walls to keep them from collapsing on inspiratory movements because they are inside the substance of the lung which itself is expanded during inspiratory movements
  69. Terminal bronchioles divide into
    repiratory bronchioles
  70. Aveolar Ducts
    long thin-walled tubes of connective tissue and smooth muscle

    respiratory bronchioles divide into 2-11
  71. Alveoli
    no more cartilage or smooth muscle

    thin layer of epithelium; presences of numerous capillaries adjacent to them
  72. Lungs
    • R and L
    • Apex: rounder superior end of the lung

    Costal Surface: adjacent to the thoracic wall

    Diaphragmatic Surface (Base): part of the lung adjacent to the upper surface of the diaphragm; concave

    Medial Surface: adjacent to the heart and other thoracic organs
  73. Root of the lung

    where all of the structure that enter of leave the lung
  74. Pulmonary Artery
    branch of the pulmonary trunk that will bring deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
  75. Pulmonary Veins
    will carry oxygenated blood from teh lung back to the heart
  76. Primary Bronchus
    branch of the trachea

    serve as a passageway for air
  77. Right Lung Fissures
    Oblique and transverse

    Left lung only has the oblique fissure

    upper, middle (R), and lower
  78. Digestive System
    system of the body concerned with the breakdown of food and absorption of nutrients
  79. Digestive System names
    • GI tract
    • Gastrointestinal tract
    • Alimentary canal
    • Digestive tract
  80. Peritoneum
    large, highly folded, serious membrane located in the abdomen
  81. Falciform Ligament
    extends from the liver to the anterior abdominal wall
  82. Greater Omentum
    extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon, forming a fatty apron over the small intestines
  83. Mesentery
    supports and suspends the jenunum and ileum
  84. Oral Cavity

    contains tongue, teeth, and openings of the salivary glands
  85. Tongue
    skeletal muscular organ which functions in the sense of taste, mastication, and the movement of food
  86. Teeth
    32 in the adult: 4 types ( incisors, canines, premolars, and molars)
  87. Salivary Gland Openings
    there are 2 pairs of salivary glands called the parotid, submandubilar, and sublinguinal glands

    all exocrine glands since they are drained by a duct
  88. Pharynx
    • - composed of skeletal muscle
    • - functions in swallowing
    • - nasopharynx posterior to the nasal cavity
    • - oropharynx posterior to the oral cavity
    • - laryngopharynx posterior to the larynx; continuous with the espohagus; hypopharynx
  89. Esophagus
    • - 30 cm muscular tube extending from the lower end of the pharynx above to the cardiac opening to the stomahc below
    • - cervical: in the neck where it lies posterior to the trachea
    • - thoracic: in the thorax where it lies posterior to the trachea in the upper half and posterior to the heart in the lower half of the thorax
    • - Abdominal: after piercing the diaphragm at the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, it senters the abdomen; runs a very short course in the abdomen and terminates by joing the stomach
  90. Stomach
    responsible for the storage of food

    3 parts: fundus, pyloric, and body

    2 curvatures: greater and lesser

    2 openings: cardiac and pyloric
  91. Fundus
    part of the stomach above the level of entrance of the esophagus
  92. Body
    part of the stomach located between the fundus and pyloric part; comprises the main mass of the stomach
  93. Pyloric Part
    extends towar the right form the lower part of the body of the stomach; ends at the pyloric opening which is surrounded by a circular smooth muscle: pyloric sphincter
  94. Greater Curvature
    name given to the margin of the stomach that courses over the fundus and inferiorly on the left side of the stomach to the inferior side of the pyloris

    convex curve
  95. Lesser Curvature
    name given to the margin that is located on the right side of the stomach

    concave curve
  96. Cardiac Opening
    opening between the cavity of the esophagus and the cavity of the stomach; located at the upper junction of the greater and lesser curvatures; called cardiac because of its close relationship with the part of the diaphragm upon which the heart rests
  97. Pyloric Opening
    opening between the stomach and the first part of the duodenum; surrounded by a circular smooth muscle called the pyloric sphincter
  98. Ruggae
    folds on the internal surface of the stomach
  99. Small Intestine
    between the pyloric sphincter and the iliocecal junction

    • - 7 meters
    • - diameter gradually diminishes through its length
    • - duodeum: first part; C-shaped organ with its concave medial border receiving the openings of ducts draining the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
    • - jejunum: proximal 2/5's of the remainder of the small intesting
    • - ileum: distal 3/5's of the remainder of the small intesting
  100. Ileocecal junction
    junction of the ileum portion of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine
  101. Large Intestine

    • - cecum: the part that lies at and below the level of entrance of the ileum
    • - appendix: lymphatic organ attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum
    • - Ascending Colon: protion that extends superiorly from the right side of the posterior abdominal wall to the liver; it bends at the liver forming the right colic or hepatic flexure and courses to the left
    • - Transverse Colon: portion that extends from the right colic flexure on the right side of the abdomen to the spleen on the left side; bends and courses inferiorly at the spleen fomring the left colic or splenic flexure
    • - Descending Colon: portion that extends from the left colic flexure inferiorly along the left side of the posterior abdominal wall
    • - Sigmoid Colon: part that extends from the descending colon to the pelvis where it is continuous with the rectum; forms a loop, the shape and position of which depend on the degree of filling
  102. Rectum
    portion of the digestive system between the sigmoid colon and the anus; narrows inferiorly forming the anal canal
  103. Anus
    sphincteric muscle located at the termination of the anal canal, which functions in the retention of feces
  104. Liver
    exocrine gland that produces a substance called bile, which is converyed via hepatic ducts to the duodeum

    4 lobes: right, left, quadrate, caudate

    structures that enter and exit the liver do so at the porta hepatis, at the junction of the 4 lobes (the heptic veins do not exit here): R and L hepatic arteries, portal vein, and left hepatic ducts
  105. Gallbladder
    located on the visceral surface of the liver between the right and quadrate lobe

    bile is stored and concentrated here
  106. Pancreas
    endocrine and exocrine gland

    • endo: produces insulin
    • exo: produces digestive enzymes that pass via a duct to the duodeum

    • - head: located int he concavity of the duodeum
    • - body: courses from the head toward the left across the vertebrae
    • - tail: left end of the gland which approximates the spleen
  107. Duct System
    right hepatic duct drains the right half of the liver and the left hepatic duct drains the left half

    these join to form the common hepatic duct

    gallbladder is drained by the cystic duct

    cystic duct joins the common hepatic duct to form the bile duct which drains into the duodeum
  108. Urinary System
    system responsible for the production and elimination of urine
  109. Organs of the Urinary System
    • Kidneys: urine production
    • Ureter: conveys urine from the kidney to the bladder
    • Urinary Bladder: functions in the storage of urine
    • Urethra: conveys urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
  110. Kidney
    bean-shaped organ that is situated in the posterior portion of the abdominal cavity on either side of the vertebral column

    • - lateral border is convex
    • - medial border is concave and present a point at which all the structures that enter or leave the kidney will pass: hilus: entrance to renal sinus
    • - upper and lower end of the kidney are referred to as the superior and inferior pole: suprarenal gland lies on the superior pole
    • - cortex lies at the periphery and the medulla lies internal to this: medulla contains medullary pyramids
  111. Ureter
    • - muscular tube that conveys urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder
    • - 2 ureters; 1 draining each kidney
    • - about 25 cm long
    • - descend along the posterior abdominal wall toward the bladder
    • - will open into the cavity of the urinary bladder
  112. Urinary Bladder
    • - musculomembranous sac which acts as a resvoir for the urine
    • - located in the pelvis, resting upon the pubis
    • - urinary bladder is drained by the urethra
  113. Urethra
    fibromuscular tube that extends from the internal urethral orifice to the outside of the body
  114. Organs of the Male Reproductive System
    • Testes (scrotum)
    • Epididymis
    • Ductus Deferens
    • Seminal Vesicle
    • Ejaculatory Duct
    • Prostate Gland
    • Urethra
    • Penis
  115. Testes
    singular = testis
    • - male gonad that contains many seminiferous tubules that function in the production of the male sex cell (sperm) and the male hormone (testosterone)
    • - located external to the abdominal cavity within a skin pouch called the scrotum
    • - they are located in the scrotum because the production of sperm (spermatogenisis) cannot occur at body temperature but it will occur at a temperature that is slighly less than body temperature
    • - sperm will leave the seminiferious tubulees via efferent ducts and pass to the epididymis
  116. Epididymis
    a C-shaped structure located on the posterior surface on each testis

    receives sperm from the testis and stores the sperm until the sperm are released in the process of ejaculation
  117. Ductus Deferens
    vas deferens

    ductus deferens will begin at each epididymis and will have a lengthy course within the spermatic cord, through the aginal canal, along the superior surface of the bladder and inferiorly along the posterior surface of the urinary bladder where it terminates

    on each side it terminates by joining the duct of the seminal vesicle and thereby forming the ejaculatory duct
  118. Seminal Vesicle
    exocrine gland that functions in producing seminal fluid which is added to the sperm

    1 of 3 glands that function in the production of seminal fluid; collectively all 3 are referred to as accessory glands
  119. Ejaculatory Duct
    formed by the duct of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle on each side

    union occurs posterior to the urinary bladder and just above the prostate
  120. Prostate Gland
    second accessory gland of the male reproductive system and produces seminal fluid that is added to the seminal fluid produced by the seminal vesicles

    located in the pelvis posterior to the pubis and below the urinary bladder

    within the substance of the prostate gland, the 2 ejaculatory ducts join with the duct draining the urinary bladder to form the urethra
  121. Urethra (Male Reproductive)
    fibromuscular tube that carries urine during urination and sperm during ejaculation

    • prostatic: part that traverses the prostate gland
    • membranous
    • spongy: part that traverses the penis
  122. Bulbourethral Glands
    3rd and final accessory gland

    ducts draining this gland will empty the secretion directly through the spongy urethra
  123. Penis
    • external genital organ through which urethra passes
    • - composed of 3 longitudinal connective tissue structures that are filled with potential spaces called venous sinuses that fill with blood resulting in an erection: two of these are connective tissue structures called corpora cavernosa and are made up of venous sinuses only; the 3rd is the corpus spongiosum with in addition to venous sinuses it also contains the spongy urethra
  124. Organs of the Female Reproductive System
    • ovary
    • uterine tube
    • uterus
  125. Ovary
    female gonad that contains many follicles that function in the production of the female sex cell (ovum) and in the production of the female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)

    located on the lateral wall of the pelvis

    ova will leave an ovary by being expelled from the follicle at the surface of the ovary; the ovum then enters the abdominal cavity, where it is immediately picked up by the uterine tube
  126. Uterine Tube
    fallopian tube/ovaduct

    extends from the ovary where the ovarian end of the tube presents numerous finger-like processes called fimbriae, to the uterus where the tube attaches to the lateral wall of the uterus

    conveys the released ovum from the ovary toward the uterus; fertilization will occur in the uterine tube, if not the ovum disintegrates within the tube
  127. Uterus (Female Reproductive)
    organ with an extremely thick muscular wall that expands during the development of a fetus

    • - located in the pelvis lying upon the superior surface of the urinary bladder
    • - fundus: part that lies above the opening to the uterine tubes
    • - body: main mass that extends posteriorly to a constriction called the isthmus
    • - isthmus: constricted part of the uterus located between the body and the cervix
    • - cervix: lower part of the uterus that opens to the vagina
  128. Vagina
    canal that extends from the cervix of the uterus inferiorly to the vestibule of the vagina, the inferior opening of the vagina

    located anterior to the rectum and posterior to the urinary bladder

    separate and distinct canal from the urethra; the urethra does not join the reproductive organs as it does in the male
  129. Labia Minora
    two small folds of skin located at either side of the vestibule of the vagina; usually hidden by the labia majora
  130. Labia Majora
    two elongated folds of skin that extend posteriorly from the pubis

    outer surface is is covered with course hairs, whereas the inner surface is smooth
  131. Clitoris
    homologous to the penis and contains erectile tissue that when it becomes filled with blood results in an erection

    located where the 2 labia minora join anteriorly
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Unit 3

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