CompTIA A+ 1

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CompTIA A+ 1
2011-08-17 14:03:05

Study cards for CompTIA
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  1. What is another name for a mother board?
    system board or planar board
  2. What is BIOS?
    basic input output system
  3. ATX
    Advanced Technology Extended motherboard
  4. Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) motherboard
    • processor and slots at right anles to expansion cards
    • runs cooler
    • can have full length expansion cards
  5. Micro ATX
    • enhanced cooling but smaller footprint
    • sacrifice quantity of slots, mods, etc.
    • lower wattage
  6. NLX
    New Low-profile Extended
  7. New Low-profile Extended
    • x slots on a special riser card
    • use reduced vertical space optimally
    • adapter cards plug in parallel to motherboard
  8. Daughter board
    adapter card
  9. BTX
    Balance Technology Extended
  10. Balance Technology Extended
    • line up heat producers with air intake and exhaust fan
    • CPU and components cooled by passive heat sinks
  11. Chipset
    collection of chips/circuits that perform interface and peripheral functions for the processor
  12. Northbridge
    • manages high-speed peripheral communications
    • integrated video and processor to memory
    • manages communication between Southbridge and rest of computer
    • data "traffic cop"
  13. FSB
    Front Side Bus
  14. Frontside Bus
    signal pathways between CPU and main memory
  15. Backside Bus
    signal pathways between CPU and Level 2 cache memory
  16. Southbridge chipset
    • manages communications between peripherals and the rest of the computer
    • including expasion buses
    • also includes LAN, audio, infrared, and FireWire
  17. Peripherals
    PS/2, Parallel, IDE, etc.
  18. Expansion buses
    PCI, USB, legacy buses (Serial)
  19. ISA Expansion Slots
    • Industry Standard Architecture
    • pre 1997
    • black
    • shorter part and longer part
  20. PCI Expansion Slots
    • Peripheral Component Interconnect
    • 3" long and white
    • Pentium-class or higher
  21. AGP Expansion Slots
    • Accelerated Graphics Port
    • for 3D graphics
    • direct connect btwn vid circuitry and PC's mem
    • brown and shorter than PCI
  22. PCIe Expansion Slots
    • PCI Express
    • Faster than AGP
    • flexible like PCI
    • maintain PCI for backwards compatibility
    • 7 speeds cooresponding to lengths
    • 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, 12X, 16X, 32X
  23. PCIe concept of lanes
    • multiple units of communication between 2 PCIe components
    • directly related to physical wiring of the bus
    • can plug smaller card into larger slot
  24. AMR Expansion Slots
    • Audio Moden Riser
    • 46 pin slot
    • audio and modem could be certified seperately
  25. CNR Expansion Slots
    • Communications and Networking Riser
    • 60 pin slot
    • integrated board with possiblity for enhancement
    • network, Plug and Play, hardware excelleration
  26. Primary memory
    used to store (RAM) currently used data and instructions for the CPU
  27. DIMMs
    • Dual Inline Memory Modules
    • used in PCs
    • differ in the number of pins
    • 168-, 184-, 240-
  28. SoDIMMs and MicroDIMMs
    • Small Outline DIMMs
    • used in laptops
  29. VRAM
    • Virtual RAM
    • hard drive space used to deliver information to RAM faster
  30. cache memory
    • very fast form of memory forged from static RAM
    • predicts what the CPU wants next and pre-fetches it
    • only the most recent info
    • external cache or Level 2 (L2) cache
  31. Socket
    flat with several rows of holes arranged in a square
  32. PAC
    • Pin Array Cartridge
    • works on very low insertion force (VLIP) principle
    • eg.: Intel Itanium
  33. IDE
    • Integrated Drive Electronics
    • aka ATA
    • upper limit of 528MB per logical drive
  34. ATA
    • Advanced Technology Attachment
    • aka IDE
    • upper limit of 528MB per logical drive
  35. EIDE
    • Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
    • upper limit of 8GB per logical drive
    • increased to 144PB
    • (PB = petabyte = 2^50)
  36. PATA
    • Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment
    • 40-pin header
  37. SATA
    • Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
    • Higher data throughput than parallelATA
  38. PS/2
    • Keyboard connector
    • 6-pin mini-DIN
  39. Header connection
    • allows you to mount the ports to the computer's case
    • on the backpane
    • uses a special cable called a header
  40. Header
    male connector that terminates the motherboard's traces for that function
  41. Direct-sodder method
    • mostly used in integrated motherboards
    • no cables
    • port is part of the mb
    • ports can be disabled in BIOS setup
  42. BIOS Chip
    • Basic Input/Output System chip
    • contains software
    • tells processor how to interact with the rest of the hardware in the computer
  43. CMOS chip
    • Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor chip
    • parameter memory for the BIOS
    • saves date, time, hard drive config, and memory when computer is unplugged
    • powered by watch-sized battery
  44. Jumpers and DIP Switches
    used to configure various hardware options on the mb
  45. Firmware
    • software that is encoded into a read-only memory chiop
    • can be run with out extra instruction for the OS
    • Ex.: CMOS setup program
  46. PGA
    • Pin Grid Array
    • processor socket
  47. SECC
    • Single Edge Contact Cartridge
    • PGA-type socket on a special expansion card
  48. Hyperthreading
    • appear to the OS as two processors
    • can schedule two precesses at the same time
  49. Superscalar processors
    able to have multiple instructions operating on separate data in parallel
  50. Multicore
    • has two completely separate processors in the same package
    • OSs can treat the single processor as if it were two separate processors
    • must support SMP
    • apps must be written for parrallel processing
    • Ex.: Dual-core
  51. SMP
    • Symmetric Multiproccessing
    • two or more processors use the same system resources
  52. Throttling
    • aka, clamping
    • controlling how much CPU time is spent on an app
    • treate all apps more fairly
    • important for server environments
  53. Mircocode
    • set of instructions that make up the various microprograms that the processor executes while carrying out its various duties
    • Ex.: Multimedia Extentions (MMX)
  54. Overclocking
    • offers increased performance
    • must be specially cooled
  55. L1 Cashe
    Located on the CPU
  56. L2 Cashe
    larger and located on the motherboard
  57. Voltage Regulator Module (p30)