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2011-06-15 00:13:18
Psych Chapter

Psych Chapter 1
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  1. Behaviorism
    Science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only (Watson)
  2. Biopsychological perspective
    perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occuring in the body, such as hormones and the nervous system
  3. Case study
    Study of one individual in great detail
  4. Control group
    Subjects who are not subjected to the independent variable and may receive a placebo
  5. Correlation
    Measure of the relationship between two variables
  6. Cognitive perspective
    Modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving and learning
  7. Critical thinking
    Making reasoned judgment about claims
  8. Cognitive neuroscience
    Study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking
  9. Correlation coefficient
    A number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and direction of a correlation
  10. Double-blind study
    Study in which neither the experimenter mor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group.
  11. Dependent variable
    Variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment
  12. Experiment
    A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result
  13. Evolutionary perspective
    Perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share
  14. Experimental group
    Subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable
  15. Experimenter effect
    Tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
  16. Functionalism
    Early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
  17. Gestalt psychology
    Early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures
  18. Psychoanalysis
    The theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud
  19. Psychodynamic perspective
    Modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivations
  20. Sociocultural perspective
    Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
  21. Psychiatrist
    A medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
  22. Psychoanalyst
    Either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis
  23. Scientific method
    System of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced
  24. Observer effect
    Tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
  25. Participant observation
    A naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed
  26. Single-blind study
    Study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group
  27. Pseudopsychologies
    Systems of explaining human behavior that are not based on or consistent with scientific evidence
  28. Psychology is
    The study of behavior (outward) and mental processes (inward).
  29. Four goals of psychology
    • 1. Description
    • 2. Understanding
    • 3. Prediction
    • 4. Control