Microbiology

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Author:
asu
ID:
90746
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2011-06-16 11:34:29
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DNA
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  1. Where do mutations come from?
    • 1. Biological
    • 2. Chemical
    • 3. Radiation
  2. What are biological mutations?
    • 1. Mistake in replication
    • 2. Recombination
  3. What are chemical mutations?
    • 1. Base analogs
    • -stop replication
    • -stop transcription
    • 2. Intercalating agents
    • -Ethidium bromide: fits inside DNA
    • 3. Alter DNA
    • -Methylate add-CH3
    • -Deaminate
  4. What are radiation mutations?
    • 1. non-ionizing radiation
    • 2. ionizing
    • -causes electrons to move --> cell damage (proteins, DNA)
  5. How can you tell a mutation has occurred?
    • 1. Cell death
    • 2. Cell transformation -->Cancer cell
    • 3. Altered metabolism
    • 4. Other problems
  6. How do you assess a chemical? Is it dangerous?
    • Rabbit eyes, mice...human
    • Use bacteria!
  7. What are the 3 types of operons?
    • 1. Constituitive
    • 2. Inducible
    • 3. Repressible
  8. What is a constituitive operon?
    Genes always turned "on"
  9. What is a inducible operon?
    Usually off, can turn "on" (lac operon)
  10. What is a repressible operon?
    Usually on, can turn off
  11. What is Expression?
    • Transcription + translation linked
    • DNA --> RNA --> Protein
  12. What are other Eukaryotic controls?
    • 1. Amplify DNA
    • 2. Inactivate DNA
  13. What are the tools for genetic manipulation?
    • 1. Extract DNA
    • 2. Assay (measure)
    • 3. Hybridize: to tell similarity
    • 4. Cut up DNA
    • 5. Separate pieces of DNA
    • 6. PCR
    • 7. Fingerprints
    • 8. Sequence
    • 9. Vectors
    • 10. Knock out genes
  14. Explain how to extract DNA
    • 1. Phenol
    • 2. Cold ethanol
  15. Explain how to assay
    • 1. 260 wavelength in spectrophotometer
    • 2. Radioactivity
    • 3. Fluorescence
  16. Explain how to cut up DNA
    • 1. Need "scissors"
    • -restriction endonucleases
    • -restriction enzymes
    • -endonucleases
  17. How do you separate pieces of DNA?
    Gel electrophoresis
  18. What is PCR?
    • Polymerase chain reaction
    • -gets lots of DNA from small amount
  19. Who came up with Taq polymerase?
    Brock (the guy who wrote our book!)
  20. Explain fingerprinting.
    Use sections of DNA to identify source
  21. Explain sequence
    Determines order of bases in DNA
  22. List some Natural vectors.
    • 1. transformation
    • 2. transduction
    • 3. conjugation
    • 4. plasmids
    • 5. yeast artificial chromosome
    • 6. virus
  23. List some Artificial vectors.
    • 1. DNA bullets
    • 2. Microinject
    • 3. Electroporation
    • 4. Incubate cells in sextrans/CaPO4
  24. Explain knock out genes.
    Take out gene/defective gene
  25. What are the states of sewage treatment?
    • Prescreen
    • 1. Settling
    • 2. Bacteria digest
    • 3. Advanced, chem, filters
  26. What are the measurements of viruses?
    Most are 20-30 nanometers = .02-.3 micrometers
  27. Lytic infection
    • 1. BO attaches
    • 2. Injects DNA
    • 3. Bacterium becomes phagefactory
    • 4. Phage assemble
    • 5. Phage released
  28. Lysogenic infection
    • 1. Attach
    • 2. Inject DNA
    • 3. Phage DNA incorporated into bacterial chromosome so host has new genes
    • 4. Sometimes alter heat/cold other shock
  29. +SSRNA
    acts as mRNA so host uses to make viral protein
  30. 1916
    • epidemic
    • studies done
  31. 1934
    • FDR birthday balls
    • march of dimes
  32. 1949 Enders, weller and robbin
    grow virus in culture, now research really moved fast
  33. List +SSRNA
    • 1. Picornavirus: cold virus, hepatitis A, polio
    • 2. Toga viruses: yellow fever, rubella (German measels)
  34. Walter Reed
    Army doc, typhoid fever, gets credit for yellow fever
  35. -SSRNA
    RNA dependent RNA polymerase
  36. Big 3 fast killers
    • measles
    • small pox
    • plague
  37. Gel electrophoresis
    used to separate pieces of DNA
  38. Restriction enzymes
    used to cut DNA
  39. Hybridization
    heating and cooling is used to determine if 2 DNA segments are related
  40. DNA fingerprints
    used to determine if two persons are related
  41. Polymerase chain reaction
    used to make many copies of a DNA segment
  42. Sequencing
    used to determine order of bases in DNA
  43. Bacteriophage attaches to bacteria
    lytic and lysogenic
  44. Bacteriophage injects its DNA into bacteria
    lytic lysogenic
  45. host cell begins making viral proteins and viral genetic material, for viral assembly
    lytic
  46. viral DNA is incorporated into host genome
    lysogenic
  47. bacterial cell lyses
    lytic

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