Research Nursing ch 3

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jbrodie727
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Research Nursing ch 3
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2011-06-15 14:44:56
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Research ch 3
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  1. Studies in which the subject can be expected to receive a potentially beneficial treatment.
    Therapeutic research
  2. Studies that are carried out for the purpose of generating knowledge. They are not expected to benefit the research subject, but may lead to improved treatment in the future.
    Nontherapeutic research
  3. The Declaration of Helsinki expanded the principles of the Nuremberg Code to differentiate therapeutic research from nontherapeutic research.
  4. Requires informed consent for ethical research, while allowing for surrogate consent when the prospective research subject is incompetent, physically or mentally incapable of providing consent.
  5. A basic principle of ethics stating that individuals should be treated autonomously, as capable of making their own decisions. Persons with limited autonomy or who are not capable of making their own decisions should be protected.
    Respect for persons
  6. Groups of people with diminshed autonomy who cannot participate fully in the consent process. Such groups may include children, individuals with cognitive disorders, prisoners, and pregnant women.
    Vulnerable populations
  7. What did the passing of the National Research Act of 1974 result in?
    The formation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
  8. Published in 1978 and has become the cornerstone statement of ethical principles on which regulations for protection of human subjects are based.
    The Belmont Report
  9. Three foundational ethical prinicples relevant to the ethics of human subjects are described in the Belmont Report
    • Respect for persons
    • Beneficence
    • Justice
  10. A basic principle of ethics that states that persons should have their decisions respected, be protected from harm, and have steps taken to ensure their well-being
    Beneficence
  11. A basic principle of ethics that incorporates a participants right to fair treatment and fairness in distribution of benefit and burden.
    Justice
  12. A process of information exchange in which participants are provided understandable information needed to make a participation decision, full disclosure of the risks and benefits, and the assurance that withdrawal is possible at any time without consequences. This process begins with recruitment and ends with a signed agreement document.
    Informed consent
  13. Reporting as much information about the research as is known at the time without threatening the validity of the study. This allows the subject to make an informed decision as to whether to participate.
    Full disclosure
  14. Conceived or formulated before an investigation
    A priori
  15. Derived from judicial decisions made during a trial and often applies rules from early English common law
    Common law
  16. Formulated by the federal and state governments and other regulatory agencies and obtains its authority from Congress.
    Administrative law
  17. Enacted, amended, and repealed by the legistalture
    Statutory laws
  18. Torts are civil wrongs committed against individuals or their property
  19. The board required in research instituions that reviews and oversees all research involving human subjects and ensures studies meet all federal regulation critieria, including ethical standards.
    Institutional review board IRB
  20. Full IRB review must be done under the following conditions:
    • Studies require direct access to participants
    • Human subjects are put at more than minimal risk
    • Protected health info is required
    • Fed funds are received
    • Publication is anticipated
  21. Covers proposals that do not require review by the IRB
    Exempt review
  22. A review of study proposals that pose minimal risk to subjects; one or two IRB members participate
    Expedited review
  23. A review of study proposals that pose more than minimal risk to subjecst that do not qualify for exempt status, and in which the full IRB committee participates

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