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Define Psychological Assessment
standardized procedures designed to collect, organize, and interpret information about a person and his or her situation
What are the goals of psychological assessment?*
description, prediction, diagnosis and planning
description: accurate portrait of personality, cognitive functioning, mood and behavior
prediction: use of descriptions for decision-making process -- should this personal be hospitalized, should they have surgery?
diagnosis: classification of abnormal behavior
planning: plan to effectively intervene
The types of psychological assessment. (6, although title says "five general categories")
- 1. clinical interview
- 2. self-report questionaires
- 3. projective tests
- 4. developmental tests
- 5. intelligence tests
*know which tests are in which category, and what theyre for, and the relative length of time for each (short vs long)
types of clinical interviews (2)?
- structured: patient answers a prearranged sequence of questions
- unstructured: clinician asks broad questions and follows up with addition ones
Types of Self Report Questionaires (5)?
- -can be either screening (1-4) or inventories (5).
- -inventories are comprehensive, both have problems with a patient misrepresenting themselves
- 1.Patient Health Questionaire (PHQ): for most common mental disorders. short
- 2. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II): for depression, short, assesses suicide, scores 0-63
- 3. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI): measures frequency of anxiety symptoms over the last week, socres 0-63, short
- 4. Primary Care Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: screen for PTSD, short (4 items)
- 5. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: used to help simplify differential diagnosis by comparing to tests from patients with psychiatric disorders
Projective Tests (2)
- -use ambiguous stimuli to for patient to "read" that gives clues to unconscious processes.
- -interpretation subjective*
- 1. Rorschach Inkblot Test
- 2. Thematic Apperception Test: shown pictures and asked to tell a story about characters, objects
Developmental Tests (2)
-used to assess development of infants and very young children >18mo
- 1. Bayley Scales of Infant Development
- 2. Vinland Adaptive Behavior Scales: help diagnose mental retardation by assessing personal and social competence
adaptive behavior: ability and competency of individual to meet expected standards of personal independence /social responsibility in relation to her/her age and cultural group.
-tests what person has already learned to assess academic achievement, learning disabilities, and behavior disorders
- some common ones:
- 1. USMLE's 1-3, basic science, clinical, and application
- 2. wide range achievement test: age 5-74, takes 30 min.
- 3. woodcock johnson tests of achievement: age 3-adult, 2 hrs
- "aptitude", mental ability, predict how well someone can perform intellectual activities
- -only measures what the test makes considers intelligence, not street or social competence
Definition of Neuropsychological Assessment
- -attempting to understand how brain structure and function impact cognition and behavior.
- -specialized type of psychological assessment
- -neuropsychologists evaluate how biological and psychological factors impact brain functioning and result in clinical symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, and impairments in functional activities
purpose of neuropsych assessment?*
-long process, medical record review, interview, psychometric testing (measure cognitive ability)
- 1. evaluate social, emotional, and psychiatric functioning
- 2. perform differential diagnosis
- 3. monitor symptoms and mental status
- 4. determine medical adherence and readiness for treatment
- 5. treatment and rehab planning
- 6. planning of life activities and reinegration
- 7. assess intellectual and academic functining
- 8. forensic/legal questions
- 9. risk for dangerous behavior
- developmental - down's syndrome, maternal ill or prenatal toxin
- acquired - TBI, vascular events, dementia