TBI2

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Author:
jakeschis
ID:
90784
Filename:
TBI2
Updated:
2011-06-15 18:38:16
Tags:
TBI
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Description:
TBI
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  1. Indicators of TBI
    • 1. LOC
    • 2. Alteration of consciousness (confused right after injury) 3. Post-traumatic amnesia
    • 4. concussion-like symptoms; nausea, headache, dizziness, balance problems
    • 5. GCS Score

    severity based on length of symptoms and GCS score
  2. GCS***
    • 1. Eye (4) - open spontaneously, speech, pain, none
    • 2. Verbal (5) - oriented, confused, inappropriate, incomprehensible, none
    • 3. Motor (6) - obeys, localizes, withdraws, flexion, extension, none

    mild 3-8, moderate 9-12, severe 13-15
  3. TBI Severity Levels ***
    • Mild: (17%) most symptoms < 24 hrs, LOC < 30 min, normal brain scan ("complicated" if abnormal brain scan)
    • Moderate: (77%) most symptoms > 24 hours, but for memory loss < 7 days. LOC > 30 min but less than a day.
    • Severe: (1%) symptoms > 24 hrs, memory loss > 7 days, LOC > 24 hrs
  4. Types of blast damage
    • primary: blast wave
    • secondary: projectiles from blast
    • tertiary: body thrown into something
    • quaternary: everything else

    most TBIs are closed head injury from IED
  5. Types of Brain Tissue Damage**
    • 1. Diffuse Axonal Injury-- slowed processing speed, reduced inhibition of impulses
    • 2. Contusions -- problems depends on site of injury
    • 3. Penetrating Injuries
    • 4. Secondary or Delayed effects (ICP, infection, blood loss, ichemia)
  6. Cognitive, Emotional and Functional Effects of MILD TBI
    • -subtle and remit within 3 months
    • 1. post concussive symptoms within first few days and weeks
    • 2. subtle cognitive defects of processing speed, attention and memory
    • 3. emotional problems exacerbated
    • 4. functional deficits: problems with multitasking, complext tasks, slowed thinking and reaction time

    --long term deficits might arise because of burden of post concussive symptoms
  7. Cognitive, Emotional and Functional Effects of Moderate-Severe TBI
    - a lot of recovery in first 6 months, most within first year

    • 1. post concussive symptoms lower
    • 2. cognitive deficits: subtle to severe problems with processing speed, attention, memory, and executive functions, maybe spatial/language function depending on area
    • 3. Emotional problems: common; depression, apathy, poor impulse control, greater risk of substance abuse or other addictive behaviors
    • 4. functional deficits: related to severity of cognitive and emotional deficits. Any occupational or academic activities should be reengaged slowly to avoid possibility of failure and discouragement.

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