Chapter 4 The Muscular System

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Chapter 4 The Muscular System
2011-06-23 10:43:17
Intro Medical Terminology

Chapter 4 The Muscular System
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  1. Abduction
    Moves away from the midline.
  2. achilles tendinitis
    Inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on the tendon.
  3. adduction
    Moves toward the midline.
  4. kinesiology
    The study of muscular activity and the resulting movement of the parts.
  5. circumduction
    The circular movement of a limb at the far end.

    ex. swinging motion of the far end of the arm when throwing a ball.
  6. supination
    Is the act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot is turned forward or upward.
  7. pronation
    The act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward.
  8. dorsiflexion
    Bends the foot upward at the ankle.
  9. retus
    Means straight.
  10. oblique
    Means slanted or at an angle.
  11. sphincter
    A ringlike muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway.
  12. fasciitis
    Inflammation of the fascia.
  13. tenalgia
    Pain in the tendon.
  14. tendinitis
    An inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint.
  15. adhesion
    A band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally.
  16. myalgia
    Muscle tenderness or pain.
  17. myolysis
    The degeneration (breaking down) of muscle tissue.
  18. myositis
    Inflammation of a muscle tissue, especially skeletal muscles.
  19. polymyositis
    A chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles that is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy.
  20. myomalacia
    Abnormal softening of muscle tissue.
  21. myorrhexis
    The rupture of a muscle.
  22. myocele
    The protrusion of a muscle through its ruptured sheath or fascia.
  23. atonic
    The lack of normal nuscle tone.
  24. dystonia
    A condition of abnormal muscle tone.
  25. hypertonia
    A condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles with an increased resistance of muscle to passive stretching.
  26. hypotonia
    A condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles with decreased resistance of muscle to passive streching.
  27. myotonia
    The delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction.
  28. ataxia
    An inability to coordinate the muscles in the execution of voluntary movement.
  29. dystaxia

    aka: partial ataxia
    Difficulty in controlling voluntary movement.
  30. contracture
    An abnormal shortening of a muscle tissues, making the muscle resistant to streching.
  31. spasmodic torticollis

    aka: wryneck
    A stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side.
  32. bradykinesia
    Extreme slowness in movement.
  33. dyskinesia
    Distortion or impairment of voluntary movement as in a tic or spasm.
  34. hyperkinesia

    aka: hyperactivity
    Abnormally increased motor function or activity.
  35. hypokinesia
    Abnormally decreased motor function or activity.
  36. tardive dyskinesia
    The late appearance of dyskinesia as a side effect of long-term treatment with certaing antipsychotic drugs.
  37. myoclonus
    A spasm or twitching of a muscle or group of muscles.
  38. singultus

    aka: hiccups
    myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm.
  39. myasthenia
    Muscle weakness from any cause.
  40. myasthenia gravis

    aka: MG
    A chronic autoimmune disease in which there is an abnormality in the neuromuscular function causing episodes of muscle weakness.
  41. muscular dystrophy
    A group of inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system.
  42. Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
    Appears from two to six years of age and progresses slowly.
  43. Becker's muscular dystrophy
    A less severe illness and does not appear until early adolescence or adulthood.
  44. fibromyalgia syndrome
    A chronic disorder of unknown cause, characterized by widespread aching pain, tender points, and fatigue.
  45. ergonomics
    The study of human factors taht affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment.
  46. myofascial damage
    Can be caused by overworking the muscles, results in ternderness and swelling of the muscles and their surrounding tissues.
  47. impingement syndrme
    Occurs when the tendons become inflamed and get caught in the narrow space between the bones within the sholder joint.
  48. carpal tunnel syndrome
    Occurs when the tendons passing through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen.
  49. cervical radiculopathy
    Nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region.
  50. epicondylitis
    Inflammaton of the tissues surronding the elbow.
  51. myoparesis
    A weakness or slight paralysis of a muscle.
  52. hemiparesis
    Slight paralysis of one side of the body.
  53. paraplegia
    The paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body.
  54. quadriplegia
    The paralysis of all four extremities.
  55. hemiplegia
    The total paralysis of one side of the body.
  56. cardioplegia
    Paralysis of the muscles of the heart.
  57. electromyography

    aka: EMG
    Records the strength of muscle contractions as the result of electrical stimulation.
  58. electroneuromyography

    aka: nerve conduction studies
    A procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle.
  59. atropine
    An antispasmodic that may be administered preoperatively to relax smooth muscles.
  60. fasciotomy
    A surgical incision of the fascia.
  61. fascioplasty
    The surgical repair of a fascia.
  62. tenectomy
    The surgical removal of a lesion from a tendon or tendon sheath.
  63. tenodesis
    To suture the end of a tendon to bone.
  64. tenolysis
    To free a tendon from adhesions.
  65. tendonectomy
    The surgical removal of part of a tendon for the purpose of shortening it.
  66. tenotomy

    aka: tendotomy
    The surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle such as strabimus (crossed eyes).
  67. tenoplasty

    aka: tendoplasty
    The surgical repair of a tendon.
  68. tenorrhaphy
    The suturing of a divided tendon.
  69. myectomy
    The surgical removal of a portion of a muscle.
  70. myoplasty
    The surgical repair of a muscle.
  71. myorrhaphy
    To suture a muscle wound.
  72. claudication
  73. atrophy
    weakness and wasting away.
  74. anticholinergic drug

    aka: antispasmodic
    Acts to control spasmodic activity of the smooth muscles such as those of the intestine.
  75. bi-
    Means two
  76. -ceps
    Means head
  77. tri-
    Means three
  78. fasci-
  79. fascia
    The sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle.
  80. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    Means tendon
  81. my/o
    Means muscle
  82. -rrhexis
    Means rupture
  83. tax/o
    Means coordination
  84. -ia
    Means condition
  85. ton/o
    Means tone
  86. kinesi/o
    Means movement
  87. -ium
    Means tissue
  88. hemi-
    Means half
  89. -plegia
    Means paralysis
  90. -lysis
    Means to set free
  91. -plasty
    Means surgical repair
  92. -ectomy
    Means surgical removal
  93. -desis
    Means to bind or tie together
  94. -rrhaphy
    Means to suture
  95. -ic
    Means pertaining to
  96. -cele
    Means hernia, tumor, swelling