Research ch 2

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  1. An overall belief system or way of viewing the nature of reality and the basis of knowledge
  2. T or F
    Qualitative decisions may not be completed until the final report is written
  3. The traditional approach to scientific research. Variables are identified and measured in a reliable and valid way.
    Quantitative research
  4. Involves identifying variables that represent characteristics of interest and then measuring them in a reliable, valid way.
    Quantitative research
  5. Characterized by a tightly controlled context that enables the researcher to rule out extraneous effects.
    Quantitative research
  6. A naturalistic approach to research in which the focus is on understanding the meaning of an experience from the individual's perspective.
    Qualitative research
  7. Focus on an understanding of the meaning of an experience from the individual's perspective. Extended observation of participants, in-depth interviews or focus groups, case studies, and studies of social interaction are characteristic of....
    Qualitative methods
  8. Appropriate for questions in which the meaning of the patient's experience is central to understanding the best therapeutic approach.
    Qualitative methods
  9. The findings from _____studies are used to enhance evidence based practice by incorporating the patient's preferences and values into guides for nursing practice
    Qualitative studies
  10. Reality is objective and can be seen and measured
  11. Reality is relatively constant
  12. Reality is embedded in its context
  13. Researcher is objective and detached
  14. Make holistic observations of the total context
  15. Analyze reality as definable variables
  16. Generalization: transfer knowledge from case analysis to similar cases
  17. A research approach that combines quantitative and qualitative methods; it involves the description of the measurable state of a phenomenon and the individuals subjective response to it
    Mixed methods
  18. ______are becoming an important too in nursing research, particularly in evaluation research.
    Mixed methods
  19. Often applied in an ad hoc way, meaning the study begins by using primarily quantitative or qualitative method, and elements of the alternative approach are integrated as an afterthought.
    mixed methods
  20. _____methods require less in the way of tools and software, but require informants who are willing to be observed or interviewed, often for extended periods of time
    Qualitative methods
  21. Two kinds of goals for research:
    • Provide new knowledge for the foundation of nursing
    • Provide knowledge that can be immediately applied to the practice of nursing
  22. Theoretical, pure, fundamental, or bench research done to advance knowledge in a given subject area
    Basic research
  23. Research conducted to gain knowledge that has a practical application and contributes in some way to a modificaiton of practice
    Applied research
  24. Both basic and applied research may use quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods
  25. Highly structured studies of cause and effect, usually applied to determine the effectiveness of an intervention. Subjects are selected and randomly assigned to groups to represent the population of interest
    Experimental research
  26. Studies of cause and effect similar to experimental design but using convenience samples or existing groups to test interventions.
    Quasi-experimental studies
  27. Involves the study of a particular situation or event that already exists. The researcher does not manipulate any variables, although relationships between variables.
    Descriptive research
  28. Focuses on the existing relationships between variables. May be aplied to the serach for a relationship between a single variable in two populations.
    Correlation research
  29. Takes correlation one step further, searching for relationships in which the values of one variable can be used to predict the values of another. Particularly helpful in public health studies and research inolving the determination of whether a risk factor will lead to a particular health condition
    Predictive research
  30. Studies conducted using data that have already been collected about events that have already happened. Secondary data were originally collected for a purpose other than the current research. The researcher is unable to control most aspects of variable definition and data colllection because the data have already been collected.
    Retrospective studies
  31. Studies planned by the researcher for collection of primary data for the specific research and implemented in the future. Those conducted by the researcher. Enables the researcher to control most aspects of the research design and implementation, and primary data are collected
    Prospective studies
  32. Conducted over time. Often very long time periods. Study the emergence of disease or the long-term effects of treatments. Subjects are followed over a period of time with data collectin occurring at prescribed inervals over the period. Disadvantage is the potential for attrition as subjects are lost to the study over the duration of the study.
    Longitudinal studies
  33. Focus on collecting data at a single point in time. No follow-up is intended or built into the design. The result is a comprehensive picture of the existence of a phenomenon in the present, without concern for how it will look in the future. Often look at a signle phenomenon across multiple populations at a single point in time.
    Cross-sectional methods
  34. In general, a qualitative study will state that it is a qualitative approach somewhere in the abstract, intro or initial methods section. Quantitative is not usually this way.
  35. Exploratory studies ofen give rise to theories that subsequently can be tested with quantitative methods, improving on the evidence for practice.
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Research ch 2
research ch 2
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