Social Psychology Test 1

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paco
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9085
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Social Psychology Test 1
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2010-03-21 06:06:19
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Social Psy
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Chapters 1-3
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  1. Activities such as speed dating is based on our ability to _____.

    a) recognize key microexpressions

    b) use and understand body language

    c) apply the theory of correspondent inference

    d) use the actor-observer effect to our advantage

    e) make a good first impression
    e) make a good first impression
  2. _____ are our beliefs about what characteristics or traits tend to go together.

    a) Augmenting principles

    b) Social perceptions

    c) Impression management beliefs

    d) The actor-observer effects

    e) Implicit personality theories
    e) Implicit personality theories


    -->People generally assume that some traits typically occur together. We aren't necessarily aware of these assumptions. These assumptions and beliefs together make up our implicit theories about personality. -->
  3. ____ tend to persist and strongly influence our interactions with others.


    a) Correspondent inferences

    b) Consensus effects

    c) First impressions

    d) Noncommon effects

    e) Nonverbal effects
    c) First impressions
  4. Depressed individuals sometimes engage in a self-defeating pattern of attributions in which they _____.

    a) attribute negative outcomes to bad luck and make no attributions to positive outcomes

    b) make internal attributions to negative outcomes and external attributions to positive outcomes

    c) make internal attributions to both positive and negative outcomes

    d) make external attributions to both positive and negative outcomes

    e) make no attributions to either positive or negative outcomes
    b) make internal attributions to negative outcomes and external attributions to positive outcomes


    -->The self-defeating pattern of attributions displayed by depressed individuals involves attributing negative outcomes to internal, stable causes and attributing positive outcomes to external, temporary causes. -->
  5. The tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to internal causes and our negative outcomes to external causes is due to our _____.

    a) noncommon effects

    b) impression management

    c) self-serving bias

    d) discounting principle

    e) correspondence bias
    c) self-serving bias
  6. When Susan saw James slip and fall on a patch of ice, she assumed it was because James is clumsy, even though she had also just slipped on a patch of ice. This is an example of _____.

    a) fundamental attribution error

    b) augmenting principle

    c) a noncommon effect

    d) an implicit personality theory

    e) discounting principle
    • a) fundamental attribution error
    • The fundamental attribution error involves our tendency to explain others' behavior in terms of dispositions, even in the presence of obvious situational causes. -->
  7. According to Kelley's theory of causal attribution, the extent to which others react to a stimulus or event in the same way as the person we are considering is _____.

    a) discounting

    b) consistency

    c) distinctiveness

    d) consensus

    e) attribution
    • d) consensus
    • Consensus is defined as the extent to which other persons react to a stimulus in the same way as the person we are considering. -->
  8. People tend to pay more attention to the actions of others when they are _____.

    a) the result of impression management efforts

    b) typical or common for that group of persons

    c) low in social desirabiltiy

    d) caused by several different recognizable factors

    e) not freely chosen behaviors
    • c) low in social desirabiltiy
    • We tend to pay more attention to a behavior when it is freely chosen, yields distinctive, noncommon effects, and is low in social desirability
  9. Women are better at understanding nonverbal messages than men are, except _____.

    a) when deception is involved

    b) when making attributions about the causes of others' behavior

    c) when they rely on microexressions

    d) when interchannel discrepancies occur

    e)when noncommon effects are involved
    a) when deception is involved
  10. _____ are fleeting facial expressions that last less than a second and are difficult to suppress.

    a) Augmenting expressions

    b) Interchannel discrepancies

    c) Linguistic styles

    d) Eye saccades

    e) Microexpressions
    e) Microexpressions
  11. Nonverbal cues are relatively _____.

    a) inconsistent

    b) attributional

    c) distinctive

    d) manipulative

    e) irrepressible
    e) irrepressible
  12. When we are in a positive mood, we tend to _____.
    A) rely more heavily on heuristic thinking
    B)more easily recall disconfirming information
    C) avoid helping others
    D)process information systematically
    E)pay more attention to the content of information we recall
    • A)rely more heavily on heuristic thinking
    • :Being in a good mood encourages automatic mental processes, such as heuristic thinking.
  13. That we are more likely to remember positive information when we are in a positive mood is because of _____
    A)affective state regulation
    B)the two-factor theory of emotion
    C) mood congruence effects
    D)schemas
    E)the optimism bias
    • C)mood congruence effects
    • :What we remember while we are in a particular mood may be partly determined by what was previously learned while we were in that mood.
  14. Maria and Sylvia, two neighbors, recently visited a casino together. Maria won $500, while Sylvia won $700. Thinking about Sylvia’s winnings, Maria becomes unhappy and dissatisfied with her own winnings. This is an example of _____.
    A}a lateral counterfactual
    B)an ambiguous counterfactual
    C)a downward counterfactual
    D)an upward counterfactual
    E)an unrealized counterfactual
    • D)an upward counterfactual
    • :Upward counterfactuals involve comparing one’s current outcomes with more favorable ones.
  15. Because of _____, many people continue to believe that SUVs are safer than smaller cars despite data that shows that many SUVs are actually more dangerous than smaller vehicles.
    A) the availability heuristic
    B)the overconfidence barrier
    C)magical thinking
    D)counterfactual thinking
    E)information overload
    • A)the availability heuristic
    • :It is much easier for most people to recall dramatic auto accidents in which a large SUV has crushed a smaller vehicle, which leads to a strong effect on people’s perceptions of safety.
  16. After having watched a particularly scary movie while she was home alone, Martha finds herself jumping at every sound her old house makes. This is due to the effect of _____.
    A)priming
    B)the mood congruence effect
    C)the planning fallacy
    D)anchoring and adjustment
    E)the representativeness heuristic
    • A)priming
    • :Priming increases the availability of specific types of information we hold in memory because of exposure to specific stimuli or events.
  17. The representativeness heuristic is a strategy for making judgments that is based on _____
    A)the idea that a particular mood may be used as a retrieval aid to help us remember information we first encountered when we were in that mood
    B)how easily certain information can be retrieved from our memory stores
    C)our efforts to prevent some thoughts from entering our conscious awareness
    D) the extent to which a current stimulus or event resembles other stimuli or categories
    E)our tendency to use a number or value as a starting point and then make adjustments to that starting point
    he extent to which a current stimulus or event resembles other stimuli or categories
  18. Our schemas and beliefs will frequently remain unchanged even when we are faced with contradictory information because of _____.
    A)magical thinking
    B)the perseverance effect
    C)the representativeness heuristic
    D)priming
    E) counterfactual thinking
    • B)the perseverance effect
    • :Schemas can shape our behavior in a way that leads us to believe that the schema has been confi
  19. _____ is the process by which information is stored in memory.
    A)Encoding
    B)Attention
    C)Heuristics
    D)Perseverance
    E)Priming
    A)Encoding : involved with storing information in memory.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. A schema is _____.
    A)the way we choose to interpret, analyze, remember, and use social information
    B)involved in effortful processing of social information
    C)a mental framework centered on a particular theme that helps us organize social information
    D) the stage where we can perform a task in a relatively effortless and automatic way because of our prior experience with the task
    E)the tendency for beliefs to remain unchanged even in the face of contradictory information
    • C)a mental framework centered on a particular theme that helps us organize social information
    • :Schemas help us make sense of the world by directing our attention to important details, by influencing our memories, and by helping us to process information quickly.
  21. The underlying purpose of conducting experiments is to _____.
    A)collect information that is relevant to a particular theory
    B)explore possible functional relationships between two variables
    C)establish whether a theory is correct
    D)form the basis of a new theory
    E)determine whether a correlation represents a causal relationship
    • A)collect information that is relevant to a particular theory
    • :Experiments are conducted in order to gather information that is relevant to a theory.
  22. When deception is used during a scientific investigation, most research participants _____.
    A)avoid participating in future research projects
    B)do not react negatively to temporary deception
    C) become angry or upset at the use of deception
    D) assume that all social sciences research involves deception
    E)become less suspicious about what researchers tell them
    B)do not react negatively to temporary deception
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The requirement for researchers to obtain the informed consent of research participants _____.
    A) is a waste of valuable time and resources
    B)cannot be met if deception is to be employed in the experiment
    C) is only a legal protection for unscrupulous researchers
    D)prevents researchers from gaining information about some particularly sensitive topics
    E)helps to serve as a safeguard against inappropriate use of deception during experiments
    E) helps to serve as a safeguard against inappropriate use of deception during experiments: Informed consent and debriefing are two methods by which research participants are protected from the possible harmful effects of deception.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. A social psychologist wants to study the effects of rewards on learning. She asks two groups of students to memorize a list of 35 words, 5 words at a time. There are 5 students in each group. After each set of 5 words is memorized, she gives one group a free movie ticket. The other group does not receive a reward for learning the words. The researcher carefully measures how long it takes the members of each group to memorize the word list. In this example, the dependent variable is _____.
    A)the time it takes students to learn the word list
    B)the free movie tickets
    C)the researcher
    D)the students
    E)the word list
    A)the time it takes students to learn the word list : The dependent variable is the one that the researcher measures.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. A social psychologist wants to study the effects of rewards on learning. She asks two groups of students to memorize a list of 35 words, 5 words at a time. There are 5 students in each group. After each set of 5 words is memorized, she gives one group a free movie ticket. The other group does not receive a reward for learning the words. The researcher carefully measures how long it takes the members of each group to memorize the word list. In this example, the independent variable is _____.
    A)the students
    B)the researcher
    C) the free movie tickets
    D)the word list
    E)the time it takes students to learn the word list
    C)the free movie tickets: The independent variable is the variable that is changed or varied in an experiment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. A formal experiment involves _____.
    A)using a control group to determine whether the experimenter actually changed the dependent variable
    B)making a change to one variable and measuring any change that occurs in a different variable
    C)taking repeated measurements of the independent variable
    D) systematically assigning research subjects to the different conditions under study
    E)carefully observing the ways that people react to surprising situations in the laboratory
    B)making a change to one variable and measuring any change that occurs in a different variable
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. A significant correlation between two variables indicates that _____.
    A)an unusually strong relationship exists between the two variables
    B)two variables are related to each other in some way
    C)another variable causes both of the correlated variables to change in the same way
    D)the two variables are really two different measures of the same thing
    E)one variable causes the other variable to change in a consistent way
    B)two variables are related to each other in some way
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Negative correlations indicate that _____.
    A)the relationship between two variables is very weak
    B) two variables tend to increase at the same time
    C)one variable increases as the other decreases
    D) there is no meaningful relationship between two variables
    E)two variables tend to decrease at the same time
    C)one variable increases as the other decreases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. One advantage of survey research is that _____.
    A)surveys allow researchers to make changes to one variable in order to see if it influences another one
    B)surveys allow us to determine the best approach to take in our efforts to change behavior
    C)surveys establish that one variable causes a change in another variable
    D)surveys allow information to be collected from a very large number of people
    E)surveys allow us to make inferences about one group of people based on the answers given by a different group
    D)surveys allow information to be collected from a very large number of people
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Naturalistic observation relies on _____.
    A) providing people with as much information as possible before they decide whether to participate in the study
    B)generalizing the results of laboratory research to real-life social situations
    C) asking a large number of people to answer questions about their attitudes or behavior
    D)the manipulation of one variable to see what effect it has on another variable
    E)systematic observation that occurs in natural settings
    E)systematic observation that occurs in natural settings
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. We decide whether an individual belongs to one social group or another through _____.
    A)systematic observation
    B)social categorization
    C)debriefing
    D)experimenter effects
    E)stereotypes
    B)social categorization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The ideal self is _____.
    A)A mental representation of the kind of person we would like to meet in the future.
    B)A physical representation of the kind of person we would like to mate with.
    C) A mental representation of the kind of person we actually are.
    D) A physical representation of the kind of person we would like our partner to become.
    E)A mental representation of the kind of person we would like to be
    E)A mental representation of the kind of person we would like to be
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Professor Smithwyck is studying the short-term mating strategies of teenagers and young adults. The professor’s research most likely falls in the realm of _____.
    A)evolutionary psychology
    B)organizational psychology
    C)child psychology
    D)psycho-sexual psychology
    E)developmental psychology
    A)evolutionary psychology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. A scientific discipline that seeks to understand the nature and cause behavior of individuals behavoir and thought in social situations.
    A)Evolutionary Psychology
    B)Social Psychology
    C)Social Neuroscience
    D) Mental Psychology
    B)Social Psychology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Remembering well and efficiently information pertaining to oneself is
    A)self-reference effect.
    B)self-schema effect.
    C)self-processing effect.
    D)self-aggrandizing effect.
    A)self-reference effect.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information is
    A)reference effect.
    B)schema
    C)self-esteem
    .D)self-concept.
    B)schema
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. A person's answer to the question "Who am I?" is
    A)self-concept.
    B)self-esteem.
    C)possible selves.
    D)self-schema.
    A)self-concept.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Social identity does not include
    A)sex.
    B)race.
    C)beauty.
    D)religion.
    C)beauty.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Self-esteem is
    A)the sum of all our self-schemas.
    B)the total of our possible selves.
    C)the total sum of our thoughts about ourselves.
    D)a person's overall evaluation of oneself.
    D)a person's overall evaluation of oneself.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is
    A)self-handicapping bias
    B)false uniqueness bias.
    C)self-efficacy bias.
    D)self-serving bias.
    D)self-serving bias
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. "Terror management theory" posits positive self-esteem that protects us from feeling anxiety over
    A)being berated by others.
    B)our own death.
    C)social rejection.
    D)failure to achieve a goal.
    B)our own death.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. The act of expressing oneself in ways designed to create a favorable impression is
    A)self-monitoring.
    B)self-handicapping.
    C)egocentric role-playing.
    D)self-presentation.
    D)self-presentation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Social representations are
    A)our most important and most unexamined convictions.
    B)the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people.
    C)object representations of real world actions.
    D)objective situations.
    A)our most important and most unexamined convictions.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. The study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables is
    A)interpretative research.
    B)experimental research.
    C)field research.
    D)correlational research.
    D)correlational research.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. The procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion is
    A)random sample.
    B)equal sample.
    C)controlled sample.
    D)survey research.
    A)random sample.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates is a(n)
    A)dependent variable.
    B)control.
    C)independent variable.
    D)hypothesis.
    C)independent variable.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a(n)
    A)ethics of experimentation.
    B)mundane realism.
    C)informed consent.
    D)random assignment.
    D)random assignment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events is
    A)research topic.
    B)theory.
    C)hypothesis.
    D)direction to research.
    C)hypothesis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Social psychology is
    A)the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
    B)the scientific study of how people love and hate.
    C)the scientific study of how people act.
    D)the scientific study of how people understand and conflict with one another.
    A)the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Informed consent is
    A)a legal term used in experimental research.
    B)American Psychological Association guideline.
    C)law in the United States and Britain.
    D)an ethical principle.
    A)a legal term used in experimental research.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. An experimenter manipulates what variable?
    A)independent
    B)control
    C)experimental
    D)dependent
    A)independent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. The text states that social psychology
    A)is an inclusive perspective from which we can view and understand ourselves.
    B)is one important perspective from which we can view and understand ourselves.
    C)is the real explanation that lets us understand and view ourselves.
    D)is the most important perspective in viewing and understanding ourselves.
    B)is one important perspective from which we can view and understand ourselves.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Social psychology _______________________ than personality psychology.
    A)has more famous theorists
    B)focuses on the differences between individuals more
    C)has a shorter history
    D)focuses on the private internal functioning between individuals more
    • C)has a shorter history
    • Feedback: Social psychology has a shorter history than personality psychology.

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