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What are the borders of the neck?
- Anterior border: manubrium of sternum
- Lateral border: first rib
- Posterior border: bodies of lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae
How is the root of the neck operationally defined? What are its borders?
- The root of the neck is operationally defined asthe lower cervical and upper thoracic region.
- The root of the neck lies dorsal to themanubrium of the sternum and sternoclavicular joint (T2-T3)
- The root of the neck is ventral to the muscle of the prevertebral region and the upper thoracic vertebra
- The root of the neck is lateral to the visceral compartment of the neck
- The root of the neck is continuous with theposterior triangles on either side of the neck
What major vessels are within the borders of the neck?
- Major veins: internal jugular, subclavian, and brachiocephalic
- Major arteries: subclavian and its branches
What are the boney borders of the neck?
- Sternoclavicular joint
- First rib
Name and explain the parts of the clavicle.
- It has two curves that are concave anteriorly(medially) and posteriorly (laterally)
- It articulates the sternum at its medial end(steroclacicular joint) and it articulates the acromion at its lateral end(acromicoclavicular joint)
What is the clavicle function?
It is a strut that holds the upper limb out away from the thorax which gives it more of a mechianical advantage and providesgreater range of motion. It is also the ONLY attachment of the upper limb tothe axioskeleton.
What kind of joint is the sternoclavicular joint?
It is a synovial joint which is classified as a double gliding joint.
What ligaments thicken the capsule of the steroclavicular joint?
- The anterior costoclavicular ligament
- Costoclavicular ligament
What muscles are part of the prevertebral muscles? Where do they originate from and where do they insert?
- Longus colli muscles – they originate on either upper thoracic vertebrae or lower cervical vertebrae and insert onto same vertebrae but higher
- Longus capitis – they originate on the cervical vertebrae and insert onto the skull
- Origin: anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of vertebrae C3 to C6
- Insertion: scalene tubercle and upper surface of rib 1
- Innervation: anterior rami of C4 to C7
- Function: elevation of rib 1
- Origin: transverse processes of vertebrae C2 toC7
- Insertion: upper surface of rib 1 posterior to the groove for the subclavian artery
- Innervation: anterior rami of C3 to C7
- Function: elevation of rib 1
- Origin: posterior tubercles of transverse processes of vertebrae C4 to C6
- Insertion: upper surface of rib 2
- Innervation: anterior rami of C5 to C7
- Function: elevation of rib 2
What are the branches of the aorta?
- Brachiocephalic trunk
- Left common carotid artery
- Left subclavian artery
What are the paths of the vagus nerves?
- After leaving the skull, the vagus nerve runsdown the neck through the carotid sheath with the common carotid artery and theinternal jugular vein.
- The vagus nerve will have nerves branching off of it –pharyngeal nerves, superior laryngeal nerves, and the recurrent laryngealnerves – as it travels down. It will end by forming the cardiac plexusanteriorly or posteriorly to the trachea depending on the side of the body.
What are the paths of the recurrent laryngeal nerves?
- Left vagus nerve – runs down to the aorta and branches to form the left recurrent laryngeal nerve which loops around the aorta
- Right vagus nerve – runs down to the subclavainand branches to form the right recurrent laryngeal nerve which loops around theright subclavian artery
What happens when the right recurrent laryngeal nerve is damaged?
If the right recurrent laryngeal nerve becomes damaged, the patient will become hoarse.
The subclavian artery is divided into three parts. What artery(ies) come off each branch?
- 1st part – three branches:Vertebral artery, Internal thoracic artery, Thyrocervical trunk [Inferior thyroid artery, Transverse cervical artery, Suprascapular artery]
- 2nd part – 1 branch: Costocervical trunk
- 3rd part – maybe 1 branch [if thereare no arteries off of this part, one can assume that the transverse cervical artery contains a superficial branch and deep branch]: Dorsal scapular artery
Medial to lateral, what are the nerves that separate the subclavian artery and vein?
- [Medial to Lateral]: branches of the cervicalportion from the sympathetic trunk, vagus nerve, and phrenic nerve
- The anterior scalene also divides these twostructures from one another and inserts onto the first rib.
What four structures are located within the carotid sheath?
- The carotid sheath contains three major blood vessel and a nerve: common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, internalcarotid artery, and vagus nerve
- The ansacervicalis sits on top of these large vessels.