Central and Peripheral Nervous System

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  1. Name parts of the brain
    Medulla, Pons, Midbrain, Diencephalons (Thalamus and hypothalamus), Cerebellum, Cerebrum
  2. Medulla: Name location and function
    The inner portion of the organ such as the kidney. Inferior portion of the brainstem. Vital to regulating the heartbeat, respiration and blood pressure. Relays messages to other parts of the brain. Controls swallowing, coughing, sneezing, & vomiting.
  3. Pons: Location and function
    Part of the brainstem that forms a bridge between the medulla and the midbrain, anterior to the cerebellum. Regulates respiratory centers and nuclei of cranial nerves V-VIII, regulates sleep.
  4. Midbrain: Name Location and function
    Superior to the Pons and the diencephalon. Cavity is cerebral aqueduct. Also called the mesencephalon. Regulates visual and auditory reflexors.
  5. Spinal Two main functions.
    • A. Controls reflexes of the body.
    • B. Xsmits info. back and forth from peripheral nerves to the brain via ascending & descending tracts.
  6. Stricture of the Spinal Cord characteristics
    • 17 inches long, 1/2 inch in diameter
    • Cervical enlargement and lumbar enlargement.
  7. Parts of the Spinal Cord
    Cauda aquina, Central Canal, Gray Matter: Anterior Column & Posterior Column
  8. Cauda aquina
    "horses tail" located sacral region and lower region of spinal cord. Most inferior portion of the spinal cord. Anterior median fissure and posterior (dorsal) fissure
  9. Central Canal
    Small opening in center of cord. Cerebral spinal fluid flows up and down opening.
  10. Gray Matter
    • Anterior Column(horn): has efferent motor neres from this area.
    • Posterior Column (horn): has efferent sensory nerves
  11. White Matter
    Descending and Ascending tracts connecting brain and spinal cord.
  12. Parts of the Meninges: Three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
    Dura Mater "tough mother", Arachnoid, Piamater
  13. Dura Mater "tough mother"
    Outer meninge layer. Tough fibrous double layered membrane surrounding the spinal cord.
  14. Epidural Space
    Between bone and spinal cord
  15. Subdural space
    Between the duramater and arachnoid
  16. Arachnoid
    Middle layer. The delicate membrane above Pia Mater and below Duramater.
  17. Pia Mater
    The inner layer of meninge. Thin vasular membrane that adheres to the brain and spinal cord.
  18. Cerebral Spinal Fluid
    Produced by chorocoid plexus in ventricle brain. Fluid is shock absorber and nutrient carrier for spinal cord.
  19. Glial Cells
    Support and protect neurons. They surround neurons providing connection, to respective destinations. Also called neuroglia.
  20. Micro glial
    Special cell acts as a microbial eating scavengers protecting CNS from infection.
  21. Neuron
    Impulse connecting nerve cell
  22. Nerve
    A bundle of axons wrapped in connective tissue.
  23. Ganglion
    Bundle of nerves located outside of CNS.
  24. Terminal Branches
    Extension of the distal end of axon. Bundles called Synaptic Terminals. Project secrete nerotransmitters.
  25. Neurotransmitters
    Synaps between cells. Help to speed up and improve the xsmit of an impulse from one neuron to another.
  26. Presynaptic Neuron
    When impulse travels to the synaptic knobs at end of an axon. Axons relaese neurotransmitters that is needed for specific message sent across synapse.
  27. Acetylcholine
    Effects skeletal muscle contraction between CNS and muscle fibers (myoneural junctions)
  28. Norepinephrine
    Neurotransmitter part of ANS effects the mood. A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla.
  29. Dopamine
    Motor function, basal ganglia (coordination, balance) Is deficient in Parkinson's (very low).
  30. Serotonin
    Effects limbic system and sleep patterns. High during activity low during sleep. A neurotransmitter of the biogenic amine group.
  31. Endorphins & Enkephalin
    Peptide neurotransmitters, natural morphine like chemical regulate pain perception.
Card Set:
Central and Peripheral Nervous System
2011-06-16 06:01:48
Central Peripheral Nervous System

Central and Peripheral Nervous System
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