government 2301

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Anonymous
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90901
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government 2301
Updated:
2011-06-20 12:33:51
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american government
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test 2
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  1. POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION
    the induction of individuals into the political culture; learning the underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is based.
  2. AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATIONS
    social institutions, including families and schools, that help to shape individuals' basic political beliefs and values.
  3. GENDER GAP
    a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men.
  4. LIBERAL
    today this term refers to those who generally support social and political reform; extensive governmental intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment.
  5. CONSERVATIVE
    today this term refers to those who generally support the social and economis status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formuae and economic arrangements. Conservatives believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens' freedom.
  6. POLITICAL EFFICACY
    ability to influence government and politics.
  7. MARKETPLACE OF IDEAS
    the public forum in which beliefs and ideas are exchanged and compete.
  8. PUBLIC-OPINION POLLS
    scientific instruents for measuring public opinion.
  9. SAMPLE
    a small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population.
  10. PROBABILITY SAMPLING
    a method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent.
  11. RANDOM DIGIT DIALING
    a polling method in which respondents are selected at random from a list of ten digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample.
  12. SELECTION BIAS
    polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studied which creates errors in overrepresenting or underrepresenting some opinions.
  13. SAMPLING ERROR
    polling error that arises based on the small size of the sample.
  14. MEASUREMENT ERROR
    failure to identigy the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions.
  15. PUSH POLLING
    polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent's opinion.
  16. SALIENT INTERESTS
    attitudes and views that are especially important to the individual holding them.
  17. ILLUSION OF SALIENCY
    impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actually it is not.
  18. BANDWAGON EFFECT
    a shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the front-runner.
  19. PUBLIC OPINION
    citizens' attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions and events.
  20. VALUES (OR BELIEFS)
    basic principles that shape a person's opinions about political issues and events.
  21. POLITICAL IDEOLOGY
    a cohesive set of beliefs that forms a general philosophy about the role of government.
  22. ATTITUDE (OR OPINION)
    a specific preference on a particular issue.
  23. EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY
    a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential.
  24. LIBERTY
    freedom from governmental control.
  25. DEMOCRACY
    a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officals.
  26. SOUND BITES
    short snippets of information aimed at dramatizing a story rather than explaining its substantive meaning.
  27. EQUAL TIME RULE
    requirement that broadcasters provide candidates for the same political office equal opportunities to communicate their messages to the public.
  28. RIGHT OF REBUTTAL
    a federal communications commission regulation giving individuals the right to have the opportunity to respond to personal attacks made on a radio or television broadcast.
  29. FAIRNESS DOCTRINE
    a federal communications commission requirement for broadcasters who air programs on controversial issues to provide time for opposing views. The FCC ceased enforcing this doctrine in 1985.
  30. AGENDA SETTING
    the power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems.
  31. FRAMING
    the power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted.
  32. PRIMING
    the process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or political actor.
  33. POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
    political activities, such as voting, contacting political officials, volunteering for a campaign, or participating in a protest, whose purpose is to influence government.
  34. LOBBYING
    a strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature.
  35. PUBLIC RELATIONS
    an attempt, usually through the use of paid consultants, to establish a favorable relationship with the public and influence its political opinions.
  36. LITIGATION
    a lawsuit or legal proceeding; as a form of political participation, an attempt to seek relief in a court of law.
  37. PROTEST
    participation that involves assembling crowds to confront a gov. or other official organization.
  38. SUFFRAGE
    the right to vote; also called franchise.
  39. POLL TAX
    a state imposed tax on voters as a prerequisite for registration. poll taxes were rendered unconstitutional in national elections by the twenty-fourth amendment, and in state elections by the supreme court 1966.
  40. TURNOUT
    the percentage of eligible individuals who actually vote.
  41. AMERICAN POLITICAL COMMUNITY
    citizens who are eligible to vote and who participate in american political life.
  42. GENDER GAP
    a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men.
  43. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
    status in society based on level of education, income, and occupational prestige.

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