BioConcepts - Nutrition

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BioConcepts - Nutrition
2011-06-16 16:36:50
Bioconcepts Nutrition

Bio Concepts Nutrition
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  1. a type of neural tube birth defect characterized by absence of covering over and incomplete development of the brain associated with folic acid deficiency during the first third of pregnancy
  2. loss of motor coordination
  3. a neurologic illness characterized by dementia and ataxia caused by deficiency of vitamin B-1 (thiamin)
  4. foods primarily made up of carbon atoms and water that are the principle source of dietary energy
  5. starches that are water-soluble polysaccharides of glucose such as those in grains and potatoes
    complex carbohydrates
  6. organic acids that erode dental enamel mixed with a slime on teeth and gums produced by bacteria that digest simple carbohydrates
    dental plaque
  7. carbohydrates made of two basic units such as sucrose and lactose
  8. Nine of the twenty amino acids that are essential nutrients: lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, and histidine
    essential amino acids
  9. two fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic acid, that are essential nutrients
    essential fatty acids
  10. more than 40 different nutrients that are essential to maintaining good health but that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from food or other external sources. The six categories of essential nutrients include proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
    essential nutrients
  11. vitamins A, D, E, and K
    fat soluble vitamins
  12. triglycerides
  13. lipids composed of chains of 18-22 carbon atoms that may be saturated (completely bound with hydrogen atoms) or unsaturated (incompletely bound with hydrogen atoms)
    fatty acids
  14. polysaccharides that cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes and are therefore not available as an energy source
    fiber or non-starch polysaccharide
  15. any nourishing substance eaten, drunk, or otherwise taken into the body to sustain life, provide energy, or to promote growth
  16. a monosaccharide found in fruits and honey
  17. a monosaccharide found in milk sugar
  18. a monosaccharide found in fruits and honey
  19. lipid substances with linked sugar groups that are key structural elements in cell membranes and precursors of other biologically active molecules important in cell signaling
  20. cholesterol carried on high-density lipoproteins that can absorb excess cholesterol in the blood and return it to the liver for recycling. Sometimes called "good cholesterol".
  21. a sulfur containing amino acid that, when present in elevated levels in blood has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and thrombosis even among individuals with normal cholesterol levels
  22. a form of protein deficiency, most often seen in starving children, characterized by retarded growth and abdominal distention caused by liver enlargement
  23. a disaccharide made from glucose and galactose; milk sugar
  24. cholesterol carried on low-density lipoproteins that can penetrate arterial walls and, when oxidized, forms atherosclerotic plaque. Sometimes called "bad cholesterol".
  25. biologic compounds that are soluble only in organic solvents
  26. minerals required in amounts greater than 1-200 milligrams per day including calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and sulfur
    major or macrominerals
  27. a severe form of both protein and energy deficiency often associated with body weight that is 60% less than normal
  28. inorganic elements found in both living and non-living things. All minerals are essential nutrients
  29. the basic structural units of carbohydrates consisting of a six-carbon ring with six oxygen and twelve hydrogen atoms attached such as glucose, fructose, and galactose
  30. the study and science of the dietary requirements of living things for proper health and development
  31. polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in fish and some vegetable sources that appear to decrease triglyceride levels and the rate of progression of atherosclerosis, lower blood pressure, and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease
    omega 3 fatty acids
  32. a condition characterized by decreased mineral bone mass and weakened bones causing a tendency to develop fractures following relatively minor injury that is often, but not always, caused by calcium deficiency
  33. a disease characterized by skin irritation, diarrhea, and permanent dementia caused by deficiency of niacin or nicotinic acid
  34. a disease characterized by anemia and nerve damage caused by vitamin B-12 deficiency
    pernicious anemia
  35. lipid substances with linked phosphate groups that are key structural elements in cell membranes and precursors of other biologically active molecules important in cell signaling
  36. carbohydrates made of long chains of monosaccharide units
  37. polymers of amino acids that contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur
  38. a disease of children characterized by malformed bones caused by vitamin D deficiency
  39. the subjective sensation of fullness
  40. a disease characterized by decreased wound healing and bleeding, especially of the mouth and gums, caused by vitamin C deficiency
  41. mono- or disaccharides such as table sugar or candy that are not usually a component of the fibrous structure of foods and are readily digested. They rapidly reach the bloodstream as an available energy source
    simple carbohydrates
  42. a type of neural tube birth defect characterized by absence of covering over and incomplete development of the spinal cord associated with folic acid deficiency during the first third of pregnancy
    spina bifida
  43. lipids that are composed of three six carbon rings and one five carbon ring fused together forming the basic structure for cholesterol, bile salts and many hormones such as cortisols, estrogens, androgens, and progesterones
  44. a disaccharide made from glucose and fructose; table sugar
  45. any of a group of antioxidant enzymes that consist of trace elements bound to protein that protect cells from damage caused by free radicals
    superoxide dismutase
  46. blockage of blood flow in veins or arteries caused by blood clots
  47. minerals required in daily quantities less than 20 milligrams per day including chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc
    trace or microminerals
  48. lipids composed of three fatty acids bound to glycerol, a three carbon polyalcohol
  49. organic compounds essential for many metabolic functions. Most are essential nutrients and deficiencies may cause general and specific signs and symptoms of illness
  50. B vitamins, folic acid, niacin, and vitamin C
    water soluble vitamins