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In 2009, ___million americans aged 12 or older were current illicit drug users. Of these users, ___% actually undergo treatment.
Less than ___ of primary care physicians carefully screen for substance abuse.
Define drug abuse, addiction, tolerance, physical dependence, psychological dependence, withdrawal, cross-dependence.
- Drug abuse: the use, usually by self-administration, of any drug in a manner that deviates from the approved medical or social patterns within a given culture.
- Addiction: behavior pattern of drug use, characterized by overwhelming involvement with the use of a drug (compulsive use), the securing of its supply, and a high tendency to relapse after withdrawal.
- Tolerance: when increased dosages are necessary to have the same effect.
- Physical dependence: a state in which a substance must be present to maintain "normal" physiologic functioning
- Psychological dependence: indicated by the frequency of using a drug or by the amount of time an individual spends in drug-seeking behavior.
- Withdrawal: a condition resulting from abstinence froma particular substance that may involve gastric upset, sleep disturbances, anxiety and a craving for the substance involved.
- Cross-dependence: when one substance can replace the actions of another.
What does the ICD-10 test?
Diagnostic guidelines for substance dependence syndrome
What does the DSM IV-TR test?
Criteria for substance dependence or criteria for substance abuse
- Men > women
- White > all other races
- Younger adults (21-29) > older adults (60+)
- Enlisted > officers
(T/F) Rate of heaving drinking among military service members is 3times greater than the rate for civlians of the same age.
What is the CAGE questionnaire?
- Most widely used alcohol screening tool in primary care.
- C-Have you ever felt you should cut down your drinking?
- A-Have people annoyed yoou by criticising your drinking?
- G-Have you ever felt guilty about your drinking?
- E-Have you ever had an eyeopening?
What is the AUDIT?
- Alcohol use disorders identification test.
- 10 questions scored on scale of 0-4
How are steroids different from other drugs of abuse in terms of its effects in the brain?
Doesn't trigger rapid increases in dopamine (no euphoria)
What is the most commonly used illicit drug in the US?
What is "spice"
Dried, shredded plant material and chemical additives that produce psychoactive (mind-altering) effects
How do nitrites differ from volatile silvents, aerosols and gases?
They dilate blood vessels and relax muscles (stimulate CNS). The other three directly affect (depress) the CNS. Used as a gateway drug.
What is the most widely used treatment for substance abuse?
CBT - Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. One of the most cost-effective treatment options.
Define/give examples of opioids.
Opium (contains morphine), morphine, heroine (morphine mixed with acetic acid), codeine. Synthetics: dolophine, demerol, oxycontin
What is the addiction potential for opioids?
What is the addiction potential for cocaine?
>50% for smoked, low potential for chewed or snorted cocaine
What are examples of sedative hypnotics?
What is the addiction potential for sedative hypnotics?
When mixed with alcohol, raises addiction potential. Otherwise it is minimal. Requires in patient detox (death or seizures with sudden withdrawal)
What are examples of hallucinogens and psychedelics?
LSD (lysergic acid diethlyamide); peyote, mescaline, psilocybin ("shrooms"); low addiction potential
What are examples of dissociate drugs?
Phencyclidine (PCP), angel dust; ketamine, special K, cat tranquilizers; dextromethorphan, cough syrups and suppressants
Which drug gives you "superhuman strenght"?
PCP (dissociative drugs)
Which drugs have FDA approved medications for their treatment?
Alcohol, opiates (=narcotics)
Calm, not psychotic, constricted pupils, sweaty, warm, not flushed
Calm, not psychotic, dry, dilated pupils, dry, warm, not flushed skin
Calm, psychotic, constricted pupils, diaphoretic, warm, flushed skin
Calm, psychotic, dilated pupils, dry, warm, flushed skin
Excited, not psychotic, constricted pupils, diaphoretic, warm/cool, flushed skin
Excited, not psychotic, constricted pupils, dry, cool, not flushed skin
Excited, not psychotic, dilated pupils, dry, cool, flushed skin
Chronic stimulant withdrawal
Excited, psychotic, dilated pupils, diaphoretic, warm/not flushed skin
Excited, psychotic, dilated pupils, diaphoretic, warm/flushed skin
Excited, psychotic, dilated pupils, diaphoretic, cold/not flushed skin
Excited, psychotic, dilated pupils, dry, warm/flushed skin
Acute stimulant intoxification