RDG 360

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kcooper
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90981
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RDG 360
Updated:
2011-06-17 00:56:49
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emergent letter name alphabetic within word alliteration syntaxAlliteration
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Test 1 - Mrs. Hillis, Summer I, RDG 360 Chs. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6
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  1. Alliteration
    when 2 or more words start with the same beginning sound. Peter piper picked a pickled pepper
  2. Alphabetic Principle
    The concept that letters and letter combinations are used to represent phonemes
  3. Ambiguous Vowels
    A vowel sound represented by a variety of different spelling patterns, or vowel patterns that represent a wide range of sounds. (“ou”-mouth; “ou”-cough; “ou”-tough)
  4. Choral Reading
    Oral reading done in unison with another person or persons
  5. Concept of Word
    the ability to fingerpoint or trace accurately to words in print while reading from memory
  6. Continuant Sound
    A continuant sound, such as /s/ or /m/ that can be prolonged as long as the breath lasts without distorting the sound quality
  7. Decoding
    various skills a person uses to decipher a printed sentence into an understandable statement (NOT COMPERHENSION) teach decoding to students letter-by-letter in patterns comparison to other words
  8. Directionality
    when kids learn to go from left to right, top to bottom, and end the last word on the page
  9. Digraphs
    two letters that make a single sound th, sh, ch, wh, ph, ck, gl
  10. Diphthong
    contain a complex speech sound beginning with one vowel sound and moving to another within the same syllable
  11. Echo Reading
    Oral reading in which the student echoes or imitates the reading of the teacher or partner
  12. Fluency
    reading with accuracy automaticity with expression and proper speed, intonation
  13. Homophones
    Words that sound alike, are spelled differently, and have different meanings (Ex: bear and bare, pane and pain, forth and fourth)
  14. Homograph
    Words that are spelled alike, but have different pronunciation and different meaning
  15. Grapheme
    letter
  16. Memory Reading
    an accurate recitation of text accompanied by finger point reading
  17. Onset
    first constant sound(s) in a word. Sun---S Slide---Sl
  18. Orthography
    Refers to the writing system of a language, specifically, the correct sequence of letters, characters, or symbols
  19. Phoneme
    The smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another. (Ex: t of tug and r of rug)
  20. Phonemic Awareness
    • the ability to consciously manipulate individual phonemes in a spoken language when one can recognize every sound in a word. A finer grain phonological skill.
    • Insight or awareness that words can be separated into a sequence of phonemes
    • Phoneme is the smallest sound unit
    • Phonemic awareness emphasizes the awareness of every phoneme in words
  21. Phonics
    The systematic relationship between letters and sounds
  22. Phonological Awareness
    • general ability to attend to or manipulate the sounds of language
    • (*spoken words can be phonologically divided into: syllables, onset, rime, phonemes)
  23. Pragmatics
    branch of linguistic concerned with the use of language in social contexts and ways in which people produce and comprehend meaning through language
  24. Pretend Reading
    retelling told by children as they turn the pages of a familiar story by heart
  25. Preconsonantal Nasals
    Nasals, the sound produced when the air is blocked in the oral cavity but escapes through the nose, that occur before consonants, as in the words bump or sink.
  26. Prosody
    The musical qualities of language, including intonation, expression, stress, and rhythm
  27. R influenced vowels
    vowel is followed by the consonant r, the r influences the sound of the vowel
  28. Rime
    vowel and any following consonants within the word Tag---ag
  29. Rubric
    an explicit set of criteria used for assessing a particular type of work or performance
  30. Salient sounds
    the most outstanding sound
  31. Schema
    framework or concept that helps us organize and interpret information
  32. Schwa
    any vowel can have the short /u/ sound (A-banana E-Kitchen I-victim O-son)
  33. Syntax
    grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
  34. Syllabication
    dividing words into syllables
  35. Word
    unit of meaning, can be a single syllable or combination of syllables
  36. Word Study
    • Instruction in phonics, spelling and vocabulary
    • Sorting words into categories is the heart of word study
    • Helps students search, compare, contrast, analyze and organize
    • Not one size fits all
    • Must match the needs of the child and teach where they are
    • By conducting regular spelling assessments, perhaps 3 x’s a year, teachers can track students progress and development
  37. Morphology
    students move hierarchically from easier, one-to-one correspondences between letters and sounds, to more difficult, abstract relationships between letter patterns and sounds, to even more sophisticated relationships between meaning units as they relate to sound and pattern
  38. Alphabetic Layer
    • represents the relationship between letters and sounds
    • Grapheme (letter) & Phoneme (sound)
  39. Pattern Layer
    consistency of grouping of letters together
  40. Meaning Layer
    groups of letters can represent meaning (prefixes, suffixes, Greek roots and Latin stems)
  41. 3 Layers of English Orthography
    • Alphabetic Layer
    • Pattern Layer
    • Meaning Layer
  42. Prephonetic
    Emergent spelling stage, writing bears no correspondence to speech sounds; literally, “before sound”, random scribbles, mock linear writing or hieroglyphic-looking symbols
  43. Semi-phonetic
    writing that demonstrates some awareness that letters represent speech sounds, "part sound". Occurs at the end of the emergent stage or the very outset of the early letter name-alphabetic stage
  44. Phonetic
    representing the sounds of speech with a set of distinct symbols (letters), each denoting a single sound. Occurs in the Middle Letter Name-Alphabetic stage
  45. Invented Spelling
    spellings generated by any speller when the word is not stored in memory
  46. Metacognition
    when one monitors their learning (i.e. checking for understanding, reflecting)
  47. Silent Vowel Markers
    a silent letter used to indicate the sound of the vowel. The silent –e in ride, the y in play and the w in snow, the i in drain or the a in treat, or can be a consonant such as the l in told
  48. Complex consonants
    consonant units occurring at the end of words determined by the preceding vowel sound. Final tch follows the short vowel in fetch and scotch, while final ch follows the long-vowel sound in peach and coach. Other complex consonant patterns include final ck in pack and final dge in badge
  49. Characteristics of Students in the Emergent Stage
    • Scribbles letters and numbers
    • Lacks concept of word
    • Lacks letter-sound correspondence or represents most salient sound with single letters
    • Pretends to read and write
  50. Reading and Writing Activities for Emergent Stage students
    • Read to students and encourage oral language activities
    • Model writing using dictations and charts
    • Encourage pretend reading and writing
  51. What age is linked to the emergent stage?
    Ages: 1-7
  52. What age is linked to the letter name-alphabetic stage?
    Ages: 4-9
  53. What age is linked to the within word stage?
    Ages: 6-12
  54. What age is linked to the Syllables and Affixes stage?
    Ages: 8-18
  55. What age is linked to the derivational stage?
    Ages: 10+
  56. What grade does the emergent stage typically represent?
    Grades: pre-K to mid-1st
  57. What grade does the letter name-alphabetic stage typically represent?
    Grades: K to early 3rd
  58. What grade does the Within Word stage typically represent?
    Grades: 1st to mid-4th
  59. What grade does the Syllables and Affixes stage typically represent?
    Grades: 3rd to 8th
  60. What grade does the derivational stage typically represent?
    Grades: 5th to 12th
  61. Characteristics of Students in the Letter Name-Alphabetic Stage
    - Early Part
    • Represents beginning and ending sounds
    • Uses letter names to invent spellings
    • Has rudimentary or functional concept of word
    • Reads word by word in beginning reading materials
  62. Characteristics of Students in the Letter Name-Alphabetic Stage
    - Middle to Late Part
    • Correctly spells initial and final consonants and some blends and digraphs
    • Uses letter names to spell vowel sounds
    • Spells phonetically, representing all salient sounds in a one-to-one, linear fashion
    • Omits most silent letters and preconsonantal nasals in spelling (bop or bup for bump)
    • Fingerpoints accurately and can self-correct when off track
    • Reads aloud slowly in a word-by-word manner
  63. Reading and Writing Activities for the Letter Name-Alphabetic Stage
    - Middle to Late Part
    • Read to students
    • Encourage invented spelling in independent writing, but hold students accountable for features and words they have studied
    • Collect 2-3 paragraph dictations that are reread regularly
    • Encourage more expansive writing and consider some simple editing procedures for punctuation and high-frequency words
  64. Reading and Writing Activities for the Letter Name-Alphabetic Stage
    - Early Part
    • Read to students and encourage oral language activities
    • Secure concept of word by plenty of reading in predictable books, dictations and simple rhymes
    • Record and reread individual dictations
    • Label pictures and write in journals regularly
  65. What layer of English does the Letter Name-Alphabetic stage use?
    First layer - the alphabetic layer
  66. Things the Early Letter Name-Alphabetic students do correctly
    • Represents most salient sounds, usually beginning constants
    • Directionality
    • Use most letters of the alphabet
    • Partial spelling of constant blends and diagraphs
  67. Things the Middle Letter Name-Alphabetic students do correctly
    • Spell beginning and ending consonants
    • Spell frequently occurring short-vowel words: cat, dog
    • Concept of word is fully developed
  68. Things the Late Letter Name-Alphabetic students do correctly
    • Spell many short- vowels and most consonant blends and diagraphs
    • Spell frequently occurring long-vowel words: like, come
  69. Things the Early Letter Name-Alphabetic students confuse
    • Letter name sounds matches
    • Consonants based on manner and point of articulation (j/dr, b/p)
    • Concept of word is rudimentary, gets off track on two syllable words
    • Spaces between words
  70. Things the Middle Letter Name-Alphabetic students confuse
    • Short vowels by point of articulation
    • Consonant blends and diagraphs
  71. Things the Late Letter Name-Alphabetic students confuse
    • Some short vowels still confused
    • Substitutions of common short vowels for ambiguous vowels: COT for caught
    • Preconsontantal nasals
    • Affricate blends (dr, tr)
  72. Things that are absent with Early Letter Name-Alphabetic students
    • Vowels
    • Complete blends and diagraphs
  73. Things that are absent with Middle Letter Name-Alphabetic students
    • Silent letters
    • preconsonantal nasals
  74. Things that are absent with Late Letter Name-Alphabetic students
    • Most long-vowel markers or silent vowels
    • Vowels in unstressed syllables
  75. Characteristics of Students in the Within Word Pattern Stage
    • Spells most single-syllable, short vowel words correctly
    • Spells most beginning consonant digraphs and two-letter consonant blends
    • Attempts to use silent long vowel markers
    • Reads silently and with more fluency and expression
    • Writes more fluently and in extended fashion
    • Can revise and edit
  76. Reading and Writing Activities for Within Word Pattern stage
    • Continue to read aloud to students
    • Guide silent reading of simple chapter books
    • Write each day, writers' workshops, conferencing, and publication
  77. Early Emergent Stage
    What Students Do Corretly
    • Mark on the page
    • Hold the writing implement
  78. Middle Emergent Stage
    What Students Do Correctly
    • Linear movement across page
    • Clear distinction between writing and drawing
    • letter-like forms
  79. Late Emergent Stage
    What Students Do Correctly
    • Consistent directionality
    • Use of letters
    • Some letter-sound matches
  80. Early Emergent Stage
    What Students Use but Confuse
    Drawing and scribbling for writing
  81. Middle Emergent Stage
    What Students Use but Confuse
    • Letters and numbers
    • Random strings of letters
    • Directionality
  82. Late Emergent Stage
    What Students Use but Confuse
    • Substitutions of letters that sound, feel, and look alike: B/P, D/B
    • Salient phonemes
  83. Early Emergent Stage
    What is Absent
    • Letters
    • Directionality
  84. Middle Emergent Stage
    What is Absent
    • Phonemic awareness
    • sound-symbol correspondence
  85. Late Emergent Stage
    What is Absent
    • Complete sound-symbol correspondences
    • Spacing between words
  86. Early Within Word Pattern Stage
    What Students Do Correctly
    • Consonants, blends, diagraphs
    • Preconsantal nasals
    • Short vowels in CVC words
    • R-influenced CVC words: car, for, her
    • Spell known sight words
  87. Middle Within Word Pattern Stage
    What Students Do Correctly
    • Common long-vowel patterns (CVCe, CVVC)
    • –k,-ck, and –ke endings
  88. Late Within Word Pattern Stage
    What Students Do Correctly
    long-vowel patterns in one-syllable words
  89. Early Within Word Pattern Stage
    What Students Use but Confuse
    • Silent letters in long vowel patterns
    • k,ck, and ke endings SMOCK for smoke, PEKE for peak
    • Substitutions of short vowels for ambiguous vowels: COT for caught
  90. Middle Within Word Pattern Stage
    What Students Use but Confuse
    • Less common and ambiguous vowel patterns
    • –ed and other common inflections: MARCHT for marched, BATID for batted
  91. Late Within Word Pattern Stage
    What Students Use but Confuse
    • Ambiguous and r-influenced vowel patterns Complex consonant units: SWICH for switch, SMUGE for smudge
    • Vowels in unaccented syllables
  92. Early Within Word Pattern Stage
    What is Absent
    • Vowels in unaccented syllable FLOWR for flower
    • Consonant doubling: SHOPING for shopping
  93. Middle Within Word Pattern Stage
    What is Absent
    Consonant doubling E-drop: DRIVEING for driving
  94. Late Within Word Pattern Stage
    What is Absent
    • Consonant doubling
    • Changing y to i: CAREES for carries
    • E-drop
  95. Tense Vowel Sounds
    Long vowel sounds (ate) tense vocal chords
  96. Lax Vowel Sounds
    Short vowel sounds (at) relaxed vocal chords
  97. Examples of CVC pattern
    • cat
    • clap
    • clack
  98. Examples of consonant diagraphs
    • thin
    • fish
    • each
    • when
    • phone
  99. Examples of consonant blends
    • black
    • clap
    • just
    • lisp
    • mask
  100. Learning Pyramid
  101. What is the main reason for introducing the letter-sound correspondence of the m, b, t, p and s prior to the letters like the x or q?
    The first set of graphemes occurs more frequently in reading
  102. Renee, a pre-Ker, shows her teacher a picture she has drawn of her puppy. She tells the teacher, "It says, 'This is my puppy, Oscar.'" Renee's writing demonstrates that she has an understanding of which of the following concepts about print?
    Print carries meaning
  103. Ms. Jefferson has guided 1st grade students read polysyllabic words until they can read them fluently. Later, students are asked to separate the words in syllables, and finally she guides students to identify the main stress in each word. What skill is Ms. Jefferson emphasizing?
    Phonological awareness
  104. Ms. Becerra uses a strategy with her 6th graders to help students monitor their own comprehension as they read independently. She instructs students to stop and check if they understand the main idea in the story before moving on to the next section. The type of comprehension practice fosters which of the following?
    Metacognition
  105. Ms. Aguirre has several ELL learners in her class. To provide her ELL students with additional support, Ms. Aguirre often incorporates body movement into her verbal interaction with her students by clapping the syllables of words in simple sentences. Her approach focuses primarily on which of the following?
    Phonological awareness
  106. During the morning message, a kindergarten teacher produces the /t/ sound and asks the students, "Who can show me the letter in the morning message that makes that sound?" A student then uses a pointer to identify the letter that corresponds with that sound. Which of the following concepts is the teacher primarily addressing?
    Alphabetic principle
  107. Not a characteristic of an emergent reader
    Engages in self correction when text does not make sense to them
  108. Not a characteristic of an emergent writer
    uses conventional spelling in their writing
  109. In upper elementary grades, reading becomes more challenging and meaningful for students because at this stage:
    Children use reading to obtain information to be successful in the content areas
  110. Mr. Lawrence reads a story to his kindergarten students in a very pleasant and natural tone of voice. Later, he uses a series of connected pictures representing events in the story. In addition to helping children understand the story, what other element is he teaching?
    The teacher is introducing sequencing and the story structure.
  111. Mr. Martinez is going to be introducing the Dolch words to his 1st grade students. Which of the following words SHOULD NOT be included in the following list?
    a
    had
    but
    awesome
    awesome
  112. Which of the following words can be used as a good example of homophones?
    to-tube
    to-two
    to-toe
    club-club
    to-two
  113. A teacher notices multiple bruising marks on a child. The teacher should:
    report the evidence immediately
  114. What is the number of graphemes in the following word - multiply?
    Eight
  115. What percent of word recognition do you have to achieve to be considered independent level?
    98%
  116. What percent of comprehension do you have to achieve to be considered independent level?
    95%
  117. What percent of word recognition do you have to achieve to be considered instructional level?
    95%
  118. What percent of word recognition do you have to achieve to be considered frustration level?
    Below 90%
  119. What percent of comprehension do you have to achieve to be considered instructional level?
    70%
  120. What percent of comprehension do you have to achieve to be considered frustration level?
    Below 70%

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