Card Set Information

2011-06-17 17:12:05

Show Answers:

  1. what are common/concerning symptoms of head
    • headache
    • hx of head inj
  2. What are common/concerning symptoms of eyes
    • visual disturbances
    • scotomas(spots)
    • flashing lights
    • use of corrective lenses
    • pain
    • redness
    • excess tearing
    • diplopia
  3. What are common/concerning symptoms of ears
    • hearling loss
    • ringing (tinnitus)
    • vertigo
    • pain
    • discharge
  4. what are common/concerning symptoms of nose
    • rhinorrhea
    • cognestion
    • sneezing
    • epistaxis
  5. What are common/concerning symptoms of oropharynx
    sore throat/gum bleeding, hoarseness
  6. what are common/concerning symptoms of neck
    • swollen glands
    • goiter
  7. What is the most important attributes of a headache
    • severity
    • chronological patterns
  8. What are some red flags when dealing with headaches
    • worst headache of my life
    • thunderclap
  9. What should you consider if a headache is severe & sudden onset
    • subarachnoid hemmorrhage
    • meningitis
  10. Which type of headaches are episodic & peak over several hrs
    • migraine
    • tension
  11. Nausea & vomiting are common with migraine can also occur with
    • brain tumors
    • subarachnoid hemorrhage
  12. what could arise if the onset of bilateral visual loss is gradual
    • cataracts
    • macular degeneration
  13. Moving specks or strands suggest
    vitreous floaters
  14. What do scotomas suggest
    lesions in retinal/visual path
  15. flashing lights or new vitreous floaters may suggest
    detachement vitreous from retina
  16. horizontal diplopia affects what cn's
    3 or 6
  17. vertical diplopia affects what cn's
    3 or 4
  18. Diplopia in one eye with other closed may suggest
    problem in cornea/lens
  19. people with sensorineural loss have particular trouble understanding
    speech & that noisy environments make hearing worse
  20. What happens in noisy environments if a person has conductive loss
    may help hearing
  21. which type of hearing deficit results from external or middle ear
  22. which type of hearing deficity results from inner ear or cochlear nerve
  23. what is otitis externa
    pain in external ear
  24. what is otitis media
    resp infection in inner ear
  25. what is tinnitus
    ringing sound or musical ringing sound
  26. what is it when tinnitus is associated with hearing loss & vertigo
    meniere disease
  27. what is vertigo
    perception that patient or environment is rotating/spinning
  28. where does the problem of vertigo stem from typically
    • labyrinths of inner ear
    • peripheral lesions of cn8 or its pathways
  29. what are some causes of rhinnorhea
    • viral infection
    • allergic rhinitis(hay fever)
    • vasomotor rhinitis
  30. what is bleeding from the nose
  31. where does blood originate in epistaxis
    nose or paranasal sinus or nasopharynx
  32. what is a sore throat usually associated with
  33. where does hoarseness typically arise from
    larynx or perhaps extralaryngeal lesions pressing on laryngeal nerves
  34. what are some chronic causes of harseness
    • smoking
    • allergy
    • voice abuse
    • TB
  35. What are some important topics for health promotion & counseling for the head
    • changes in vision:cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma
    • hearing loss
    • oral health
  36. what is the leading cause of blindness in african americans & 2nd leading cause of blindness overall
  37. What are some risk factors for glaucoma
    • age older than 65
    • african american descent
    • diabetes
    • myopia
    • ocular hypertension
  38. What are the groups at risk for hearing loss
    • hx of congential or family hearing loss
    • syphilis
    • menigitis
    • exposure to hazards materials
  39. how can you counsel patients on ways to improve oral health
    • daily hygiene measures
    • fluroide containing toothpastes
    • brushing & flossing regularly
    • dental care annually
    • avoid foods high in refined sugar
  40. how do you test for visual acuity
    • snellen eye chart
    • patient 20ft from chart
    • cover one eye
    • read smallest line
  41. What should you do if the person can't read the largest print on the chart
    move them closer to chart & note intervening distance
  42. How is visual acuity expressed
    • 2 numbers
    • first=distance from chart
    • second=distance at which normal eye can read the line
  43. What does vision of 20/200 mean
    20ft the patient can read print that a person with normal vision could read at 200ft
  44. what could an enlarged blind spot occur
    optic nerve is affected=glaucoma, optic neuritis, papilledema
  45. What should you do if the pupils are greater than 5mm or less than 3mm
    measure them
  46. what is miosis
    constriction of pupils
  47. what is mydriasis
  48. what does it mean if the the iris bends forwards casting a crescentic shadow on the medial side of the iris
    possible acute narrow-angle glaucoma due to sudden increase in intraocular pressure
  49. how can you test for argyll robertson & tonic pupils
    testing near reaction
  50. what does asymmetry of the corneal reflection indicates
    deviation from normal ocular alignment
  51. what is nystagmus
    fine rhythmic oscillation of eyes
  52. what is lid lag
    eyes move from up to down
  53. without dilating the pupils your view is limited to what during the opthalmascope exam
    post structures of retina
  54. how can you see the peripheral structures better to see the macula better
    dilate the pupils with mydriatic drops
  55. what are the steps for using the opthalamoscope
    • darken room
    • shine light on back of hand
    • turn lens to 0 diopter
    • right hand right eye to patients right eye
    • braced against medial aspect of bony orbit at 20 degree slant
    • 15 inches from patient
    • angle 15 degrees lat to patient's line of visionn
    • light beam onto pupil
    • look for red reflex
  56. What if the red reflex is absent it may suggest what
    • cataract
    • vitreous
    • detatched retina
    • retinoblastoma
  57. What are the steps for examing the optic disc & retina
    • locate OD
    • bring into sharp focus=adjusting lens
    • inspect OD noting sharpness/clarity; color, size & symmetry
  58. how do you adjust the diopters for a myopic patient
    rotate lens counterclockwise
  59. how do you adjust the diopters for a hyperopic patient
    rotate lens clockwise
  60. What can papilledema signal
    • meningitis
    • sub arach hem
    • trauma
    • mass lesions
  61. how are arteries vs veins different in the retina
    • A=lighter,smaller with a bright light reflex
    • V=darker, larger,absent light reflex
  62. how can lesions of retina be measured
    disc diameters
  63. What is a cause of poor central vision in the elderly
    macular degeneration
  64. What is the weber test
    testing for lateralization by placing a tuning fork on top of head & ask where they hear the sound
  65. What is the rinne test
    compares the air conduction and bone conduction by placing fork mastoid bone & remove when no longer heard laterally to the ear and ask if they can still hear it
  66. Where is sound heard in unilateral conductive hearing loss
    impaired ear
  67. where is sound heard in unilateral sensorineural hearing loss
    good ear
  68. How is sound heard in conductive hearling loss
    heard through bone as long as or longer than it is through air
  69. Increased adrenal cortisol production produces a round or moon face with red cheeks, excessive hair growth in musstache. What are we describing
    cushings syndrome
  70. face is edematous and often pale with swelling around eyes in morning
    nephrotic syndrome
  71. A dull puffy face with edema around eyes & hair,eyebrows dry & thinned along with dry skin
  72. increased growth hormone produces enlargement bone soft tissues
  73. drooping of upper lid caused by myasthenia gravis or damage to cn3
  74. inward turning of lid margin more common in elderly
  75. lower lid is turned outward expoxing palpebral conjunctiva with tearing
  76. wide eyed stared with retracted eyelids due to hyperthyroidism
    lid retraction
  77. eyeball protrudes forward
  78. opacities of lenses visible through the pupil
  79. spokelike shadows that point inward
    peripheral cataract
  80. What is anisocoria
    unequal pupils
  81. pupil is large, regular, and usually unilateral with a reduced & slowed reaction to light & slow accommodation
    tonic pupil/adie
  82. dilated pupil with ptosis & lat deviation of eye
    cn3 paralysis
  83. affected pupil is small, reacts briskly to light, ptosis, loss of sweating on forehead
    horner's syndrome
  84. small irregular pupils that accommodate but don't react to light
    argyll robertson pupil=syphilis
  85. optic disc appears pink & hyperemic
  86. physiologic cup is enlarged in optic disc
    glaucomatous cupping
  87. optic disc appears white
    optic atrophy
  88. ocular fundi had tiny red dots with rings of hard exudates(white spots)
    nonproliferative retinopathy
  89. retinal hemorrhage of ocular indicates
    nonproliferative retinopathy with severe
  90. new preretinal vessels arising on disc extending across disc margin with normal visual acuity
    proliferative retinopathy with neovascularization
  91. neovascularization has increased with fibrous proliferations, distortion of macula & reduced visual acuity
    proliferative retinopathy advaced
  92. external or middle ear disorder impairs sound conduction to inner ear caused by foreign body, otitis media, perforated eardrum
    conductive loss
  93. inner ear disorder involves cochlear nerve & neuronal impulse transmission to brain due to loud noise or inner ear infections
    sensorineural loss