Micro Chapter 14: Microbial Interactions

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Micro Chapter 14: Microbial Interactions
2011-06-18 00:18:06

Chapter 14
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  1. pathogen
    a parasite capable of causing disease in a host
  2. host
    any organism that harbors another organism
  3. symbiosis
    an association between two (or more) species

    "living together"
  4. mutualism
    both members benefit from the relationship
  5. parasitism
    one organism benefits from the relationship, where as the other organism
  6. commensialism
    two species live together in a relationship such that one benefits and the other one neither benefits nor is harmed
  7. antagonism
    both species harm each other without ether benefiting
  8. contamination
    microorganisms are present
  9. infection
    the multiplication of any parasitic organism within or on the host's body
  10. infestation
    the presence of larger parasites, such as worms or arthropods, in or on the body
  11. disease
    a disturbance in the state of health wherein the body cannot carryout all its normal functions
  12. pathogenicity
    the capacity to produce disease
  13. virulence
    the intensity of the disease produced by pathogens
  14. animal passage
    the rapid transfer of the pathogen through animals of a species susceptible to infection by that pathogen
  15. attenuation
    the weakening of the disease-producing ability of the pathogen
  16. transposal of virulence
    a laboratory technique in which a pathogen is passed from its normal host to a new host species and then passed sequentially through many individuals of the new host species
  17. normal microflora
    organisms that live on or in the body but do not cause disease
  18. resident microflora
    comprise microbes that are always present on or in the human body
  19. transient microflora
    microorganisms that can be present under certain conditions in any of the locations
  20. opportunists
    organisms that do not usually cause disease but can do so under certain conditions
  21. conditions that create opportunities to cause disease:
    • 1. Failure of the Host's Normal Defenses
    • 2. Introduction of the Organisms into Unusual Body Site
    • 3. Disturbances in the Normal Microflora
  22. Koch's Postulates
    • 1. the specific causitive agent must be observed in every case of a disease
    • 2. The agent must be isolated from a diseased host and must be grown in pure culture
    • 3. when the agent from the pure culture is inoculate into healthy, but susceptible, experimental hosts, the agent must cause the same disease
    • 4. The agent must be re-isolated from the inoculate, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent
  23. Infectious disease
    diseases caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths
  24. noninfectious diseases
    caused by any factor other than infectious organisms
  25. Inherited diseases
    caused by errors in genetic information
  26. congenital diseases
    structural and functional defects present at birth, caused by drugs, excessive X-ray exposure, or certain infections
  27. degenerative diseases
    disorders that develop in one or more body systems as aging occurs
  28. nutritional deficiency diseases
    lower resistance to infectious deseases and contribute to the severity of infections
  29. endocrine diseases
    due to excesses or deficiencies of hormones
  30. mental disease
    can be caused by a variety of factors, including those of an emotional, or psychogenic nature, as well as certain infections
  31. Immunological diseases
    caused by malfunction of the immune system
  32. neoplastic diseases
    involve abnormal cell growth that leads to the formation of various types of generally harmless, or cancerous growths or tumors
  33. Iatrogenic diseases
    caused by medical preocedures and/or treatments
  34. Idiopathic diseases
    diseases whose cause is unknown
  35. communicable infections diseases
    some infections that can be spread from one host to another
  36. contagious diseases
    highly communicable diseases
  37. Noncommunicable infectious diseases
    are not spread from one host to another
  38. virulence factors
    structural or physiological characteristics that help organisms cause infection and disease
  39. adherence
    a critical point in the production of bacterial disease (attachment)
  40. adhesins
    proteins or glycoproteins found on attachment pili (fimbrae) and capsules
  41. colonization
    the growth of microorganisms on epithelial surfaces, such as skin or mucous membranes
  42. invasiveness
    its ability to invade and grow in host tissues
  43. hyaluronidase
    spreading factor

    Streptococci produce this enzyme to digest hyaluronic acid
  44. coagulase
    • a bacterial enzyme that accelerates the coagulation (clotting) of blood
    • 1. keeps organisms from spreading
    • 2. helps wall organisms off from immune defenses that might otherwise destroy them
  45. streptokinase
    dissolves blood clots
  46. toxin
    any substance that is poisonous to other organisms
  47. exotoxins
    soluble substances secreted into host tissues

    more powerful toxins produced by several Gram-positive and a few Gram-negative bacteria
  48. endotoxins
    part of the cell wall and are released into host tissues from Gram-negative bacteria
  49. hemolysins
    the action of these exotoxins is to lyse (rupture) red blood cells
  50. Alpha-hemolysins
    hemolyze blood cells, partially break down hemoglobin, and produce a greenish ring around colonies
  51. beta-hemolysins
    hemolyze blood cells but completely break down hemoglobin and leave a clear ring around colonies
  52. leukocidins
    exotoxins produced by many bacteria

    damage or destroy certain kinds of white blood cells called neutrophils and macrophages
  53. leukostatin
    interferes with the ability of leukocytes to engulf microorganisms that secrete the exotoxin
  54. toxemia
    the spreading of exotoxins by blood from the site of infection
  55. intoxications
    disease that result from the ingestion of a toxin
  56. neurotoxins
    are exotoxins that act on tissues of the nervous system to prevent muscle contraction (botulism) of muscle relaxation (tetanus)
  57. enterotoxins
    are exotoxins that act on tissues of the gut
  58. toxoid
    an altered toxin that has lost its ability to cause harm but that retains antigenicity
  59. cytopathic effect
    in tissue culture systems, once inside a cell, viruses cause observable changes
  60. inclusion bodies
    consist of nucleic acids and proteins not yet assembled into viruses, masses of viruses, or remnants of viruses
  61. productive infection
    occurs when viruses enter a cell and produce infectious offspring
  62. abortive infection
    occurs when viruses enter a cell but are unable to express all their genes to make infectious offspring
  63. latent viral infections
    the virus may retreat into the nervous system and remain inactive, or latent

    stress, other infections, or fever can reactivate the virus
  64. persistent viral infections
    involve a continued production of viruses over many months or years
  65. mycotoxins
    certain fungi parasites produce which cause disease in human
  66. sign
    a characteristic of a disease that can be observed by examining the patient
  67. symptom
    a characteristic of a disease that can be observed or felt only by the patient
  68. syndrome
    combination of signs and symptoms that occur together and are indicative of a particular disease or abnormal condition
  69. leukocytosis
    an increase in the number of white-blood cells circulating in the blood
  70. sequelae
    some disease leave aftereffects, even after recovery
  71. acute disease
    develops rapidly and runs its course quickly
  72. chronic disease
    develops more slowly, is usually less severe, and persists for a long, indeterminate period
  73. latent disease
    characterized by periods of inactivity
  74. focal infection
    confined to a specific area, but pathogens, or their toxins, can spread to other areas
  75. systematic infection
    generalized infection

    affects most of the body, and the pathogens are widely distributed in many tissues
  76. primary infection
    an intial infection in a previously healthy person (many are acute)
  77. secondary infection
    follows a primary infection, especially in individuals weakened by the primary infection
  78. incubation period
    the time between infection and the appearance of signs and symptoms
  79. prodromal phase
    a short period during which nonspecific, often mild, symptoms such as malaise and headache sometimes appear
  80. prodrome
    a symptom indicating the onset of a disease
  81. invasive phase
    the period during which the individual experiences the typical signs and symptoms of the disease
  82. acme
    when the signs and symptoms reach their greatest intensity
  83. pyrogens
    • act on a center in the hypothalamus, referred to as the body's thermostat.
    • Pyrogens set the thermostat at a higher-than-normal temperature
  84. decline phase
    the period of illness during which host defenses and the effects of treatment finally overcome the pathogen
  85. convalescence period
    tissues are repaired, healing takes place, and the body regains strength and recovers