A&P Chapter 12 Heart & Blood Vessels

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elizabethtovar88
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91212
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A&P Chapter 12 Heart & Blood Vessels
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2011-06-19 02:07:25
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Heart Blood Vessels
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Heart & Blood vessels.
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  1. Arteries do what?
    Carry blood away from the heart.
  2. Veins do what?
    Carry blood to the heart.
  3. What is the apex?
    The pointed end of the heart, that extends toward the left side of the thorax at the level of the 12th rib.
  4. What is the pericardium?
    Envelopes the heart & the blood vessels.
  5. Name the layers of the heart, starting from the outer layer to the inner layer;
    • Epicardium
    • Myocardium
    • Endocardium
  6. What 2 chambers are the upper chambers that receive blood being returned to the heart by the veins?
    Atria
  7. What 2 chambers are the lower chambers that pumps blood into the arteries carrying blood away from the heart?
    Ventricles
  8. What separates the L & R Atria?
    Interatrial septum.
  9. What separates the L & R Ventricles?
    Interventricular septum.
  10. What ventricle has a thicker muscular wall? And why is it thicker?
    The left ventricle, it pumps blood to the entire body, except the lungs.
  11. What is the function of the right atrium?
    Receives deoxygenated blood from the superior & inferior venae cavae & passes the blood through the tricuspid A-V valve to the right ventricle.
  12. What is the function of the right ventricle?
    Receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium & pumps blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk.
  13. What is the function of the left atrium?
    Receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins & passes blood through the bicuspid valve A-V valve to the left ventricle.
  14. What is the function of the left ventricle?
    Receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium & pumps blood through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta.
  15. What A-V valve is located between the right atrium & the right ventricle?
    The tricuspid valve.
  16. Where is the bicuspid/mitral valve located at?
    Between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
  17. What provides structural support and serves as a insulation separating the electrical activity of the atria & ventricles?
    Fibrous skeleton.
  18. Where is the pulmonary semilunar valve located?
    At the base of the pulmonary trunk.
  19. Where is the aortic semilunar valve located?
    At the base of the aorta.
  20. What is systole?
    Contraction.
  21. What is diastole?
    Relaxation.
  22. What produces the lub-dub sound?
    The closing of the atrioventricular valves (A-V), and the closing of the semilunar valves.
  23. The superior vena cava returns blood from the _____?
    Head, neck, shoulders, and arms.
  24. The inferior vena cava returns blood from ______?
    Regions below the heart.
  25. The right ventricle pump blood into what?
    The pulmonary trunk.
  26. The pulmonary trunk branches to form what?
    The left and right pulmonary arteries (carries blood to the lungs).
  27. What ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the aorta?
    The left ventricle.
  28. What is known as the pacemaker of the heart, and where is it located?
    The sinoatrial node, located in the right atrium.
  29. Where is the atrioventricular node located?
    In the right atrium near the junction with the ventricular septum.
  30. What is a group of large fibers that divide into left and right branches extending down the ventricular septum and up the lateral walls of the ventricles?
    A-V bundle (bundle of His).
  31. What arises from the branches of the A-V bundle and carries the impulses to the myocardium of the ventricles?
    Purkinje fibers.
  32. The P wave is produced by what?
    The depolarization of the atria.
  33. The QRS wave is produced by what?
    The depolarization of the ventricles.
  34. The T wave is produced by what?
    The repolarization of the ventricular myocardium.
  35. What is cardiac output?
    Amount of the blood pumped from the heart in one minute.
  36. Heart rate regulation is under the control of what?
    Cardiac center.
  37. Where is the cardiac center located?
    Medulla oblongata.
  38. Impulses transmitted to the heart via sympathetic fibers causes what?
    An increase in heart rate.
  39. Impulses transmitted to the heart via parasympathetic fibers causes what?
    A decrease in heart rate.
  40. Norepinephrine causes what?
    An increase in heart rate and strengthens the force of myocardial contraction.
  41. The resting heart rate is faster in males or females?
    Females.
  42. Epinephrine is secreted by what gland, and during what?
    Adrenal gland, during stress or excitement.
  43. Excess of thyroxine produces what?
    A lesser but longer-lasting increased in heart rate.
  44. What do arteries do?
    Carry blood from the heart to the capillaries.
  45. What do capillaries do?
    Enables exchange of materials between blood and tissue cells.
  46. What do veins do?
    Returns blood form the capillaries to the heart.
  47. The contraction of what creates BP?
    Ventricles
  48. The return of venous blood is assisted by what three additional forces?
    Skeletal muscle contractions, respiratory movements, gravity
  49. The contractions of skeletal muscles does what?
    Compresses the veins forcing blood from one valved segment to another and on toward the heart.
  50. What four major factors affect BP?
    Cardiac output, blood volume, peripheral resistance, and blood viscosity.
  51. What is cardiac output?
    The volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute.
  52. What is peripheral resistance?
    The friction of blood against the walls of blood vessels.
  53. What is viscosity?
    The resistance of a liquid flow.
  54. What is vasoconstriction?
    Raises BP and increases blood velocity.
  55. What is vasodilation?
    Lowers blood pressure and slows blood velocity.
  56. The activity of the vasomotor center is modified by what?
    Epinephrine
  57. What is autoregulation?
    Increases the rate of exchange of materials between tissue cells.
  58. Explain pulmonary circuit:
    Carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where oxygen & carbon dioxide are exchanged between the blood and the air in the lungs.
  59. Explain systemic circuit:
    Caries oxygenated blood to the tissue cells of the body & returns deoxygenated blood to the heart.
  60. What artery supplies the heart?
    Coronary.
  61. What artery supplies the head and right arm?
    Brachiocephalic.
  62. What artery supplies the thoracic wall?
    Intercoastal.
  63. What artery supplies the liver, stomach, and spleen?
    Celiac.
  64. What artery supplies the kidney?
    Renal.
  65. What artery supplies the ovaries/testes?
    Gonadal.
  66. What artery supplies the thigh?
    Femoral.
  67. Arrhythmia?
    Abnormal heartbeat.
  68. Bradycardia?
    Heart rate less than 60 beats per minute.
  69. Tachycardia?
    Heart rate over 100 beats per minute.
  70. Heart flutter?
    Rapid heart rate of 200-300 beats perminute.
  71. Fibrillation?
    Rapid heart rate,contractions are uncoordinated so blood is not pumped from the ventricles.
  72. Heart murmurs?
    Unusual heart sounds.
  73. Myocardial infraction?
    Death of a portion of the myocardium.
  74. Pericarditis?
    Inflammation of the pericardium.
  75. Aneurysm?
    A weakened portion of a blood vessel that bulges out, forming a balloon like sac filled with blood. Rupture may produces fatal hemorrhage.
  76. Arteriosclerosis?
    The formation of fatty deposits in the tunica interna of arterial walls.
  77. Hypertension?
    High BP.
  78. Phlebitis?
    Inflammation of a vein.
  79. Thrombophlebitis?
    The formation of a blood clot.
  80. Varicose veins?
    Veins that have become dilated and swollen because their valves are not functioning properly.

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