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1. What is a claused bill of lading?
A bill of lading that shows a shortfall or damage in the delivered goods. Typically, if the shipped products deviate from the delivery specifications or expected quality, the receiver may declare a claused bill of lading.
2. Define and translate �booking not�
- Supervision clause: a booking note contain the terms of the contract, they very commeon in the liner trade.
- - Buchungsnote
3. What is a document of title?
shipping document (such as a bill of lading, dock receipt, warehouse receipt) that confers and/or proves ownership. A document of title enables its holder(possessor) to receive, retain, sell, or otherwise dispose of the document and the goods or property listed therein.
4. As a result of [��] waybills are now commonly encountered
5. Define and translate �shipper�
- It�s the person which is tendering goods to be carried
- - Verlader, Ablader
6. What are the potential problems of accepting a LOI?
- - A LOI cannot be enforced by the carrier against the shipper.
- - P&I Club will not give cover for losses occurring in such circumstances
7. The durantion of a time charter will be fixed in two ways:
- - trip time parties
- - time charter parties for a fixed periode
8. What is a Contract of Affreightment?
- - A COA is used as synonym for contracts for carriage of goods by sea.
- - COA is in legal term a form of voyager charter
9. The holder of the B/L can transfer ownership of the goods in two ways:
- - endorsing
- - transferring
- the B/L
10. Who employs master and crew under a bareboat charter?
The bareboat charterer
11. Which of the following statement is correct?
- - If the document declares itself to be �non transferabel� or �non negotiable� it will be a B/L
- - If the document declares itself to be �non transferabel� or �non negotiable� it will not be a B/L (
12. Name three consequences that follow from the fact that a charterer is regarded as bareboat charterer.
- - Master and crew serve the bareboat charterer
- - B/L signed by the Master bind the charterer but not the owner
- - Owner is not liable the charterer for acts of the master and crew
13. Demise charterparties are often referred to as [��]. The terms are often regarded as synonymous.
- bareboat charterparties
14. Name two areas in which demise charters are relevant
- - operating charterparties
- - finance charterparties (leasing)
15. When and why LOIs are used by shippers?
If the cargo is demage and it will be shipped the B/L ist claused
16. Is a Sea Waybill a document of title?
No, because its not possible to transfer ownership
17. What is the different between a time charter for a fixed period and a trip time charter?
- Fixed period: Charterer hires the vessel for a fixed time period. The charterer can do in this time most as possible voyages.
- Trip time: duration of a named voyage. A direct voyage from A to B.
18. Are there limits on the time charterer�s control of the vessel?
Yes, trading limits. Also obtained the master the routing for a safe navigation.
19. Booking notes are very common in the [��] trade.
20. State two limits on time charterer�s control of the vessel:
- - trading limits
- - safe ports / berth limits
21. What is the main different between a B/L and a Sea Waybill?
- - A Bill of lading is a document of title, endorsement and transfer a B/L is equivalent to transfer the goods themselves
- - A Sea Waybill contains a undertaking by the carrier to the shipper
22. The speed and consumption [��] is sometimes given �without guarantee�
23. Generally speaking, the preliminary voyage and the carrying voyage are the responsibility the [��]
24. State three functions of a B/L
- - document of title
- - receipt
- - evidence of the contract
25. Why does �clausing� may problems to the shipper?
- - no purchaser will accept a claused B/L
- - no bank will accept a claused B/L as reference
26. What does LOI mean?
Letter of indemnity
27. State two advantages of a Sea Waybill over a B/L
- - it does not have to be tendered at the discharge point to obtain delivery
- - shipper can change the delivery instructions
28. What are the two main types of standard form consecutive voyage charter parties?
29. Translate �letter of credit�
- - a letter from a bank, that allows you to get a particular amount of money from another bank
- - Akreditiv / Kreditbrief
30. Translate �pledge�
- - a serious promise / a sum of money that you leave with somebody to prove that you will pay back money that you own
- - Pfand
31. Define and translate �deadfreight�
- - freight for unused cargospace / deadweight
- - Leerfracht
32. Define and translate �trading limits�
- - Geographical limits states in the contract by the charterer
- - Handelsgrenzen / Fahrtgrenzen
33. What does BIMCO stands for?
Baltic and International Maritime Council
34. Define and translate �consignee�
- - the person to whom the shipment is to be delivered
- - Empf�nger
35. A [��] is a contract for the carriage of goods by sea on a specified voyage.
36. State two functions of a Sea Waybill
- - Receipts for goods
- - terms / evidence of the contract (without seeing a document of title)
37. What is the most used time charter form?
NYPE 1946 (New York Produce Exchange)
38. Define and translate �lessee�
- - a person who has use something on a lease
- - Mieter / P�chter
39. Define and translate �lessor�
- - a person who gives somebody the use of something on a lease, to hire something
- - Vermieter / Verp�chter, Leasinggeber
40. Define and translate �carrier�
- - company that carries goods from one place two another
- - Verfracht