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2011-06-19 18:42:36
Chapter Two

Except Plant and Animal Cells stuff
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  1. Cell division is responsible for
    • growth - increases size
    • repair - repair damaged cells
    • reproduction - two identical cells
  2. Skin cells or Somatic cells undergo
  3. Skin cells
    cells make up skin
  4. Somatic cells
    cells that reproduce by cell division
  5. Mitosis
    the process that divides the nuclear material during cell division
  6. DNA (deoxyribonuleic acid)
    a long molecule that provides instructions for making, running, and repairing a cell
  7. RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    one strand of DNA
  8. Why is DNA important?
    DNA is the GENETIC CODE that is a unque pattern of base pairings to for characteristics.
  9. Structure of DNA
    • twisted ladder, nucleotides, nitrogenous base molecule
    • sides: sugar and phosphate
  10. Base Pairings: (nitrogenous bases)
    Adenine & Thymine, Guanine & Cytosine
  11. Cell Cycle- the sequence of events in the cell from one cell division to another
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase, Cytokensis
  12. Interphase -
    growing and working, 90%
  13. Prophase -
    sister chromotids visible, join 'X' shape, nuclear membrane breaksdown chromosomes spread out
  14. Metaphase -
    spindle formed, chromotids attach to spindle fibres, chromotids line up in centre
  15. Anaphase -
    chromotids pulled apart from spindle goes toward opposite poles of cell, chromotids called chromosoes
  16. Telophase -
    • new chromosomes reach opposite poles
    • events of prophase happen in reverse
    • two nuclear membranes form
    • spindle disappears
    • chromosomes lengthen and get thinner
    • nucleoli reappears
  17. Cytokensis -
    • divides cytoplasm in two daughter cells
    • pinching of cell membrance and cytplasm
    • between two new nuclei
  18. Mutation
    a change in DNA (genetic code) of a cell
  19. What does a mutation do?
    A harmful mutation in a gene's DNA causes change in the protein that is produced.
  20. What does a mutation affect?
    The body's functions.
  21. Tumours
    • benign - harmless
    • malignant- harmful, spreads
  22. What does a malignant tumor's cell look like?
    The nuclei is enlarged, the cell is bigger.