Head and Trunk (1).txt

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Author:
shandle
ID:
91291
Filename:
Head and Trunk (1).txt
Updated:
2011-06-19 21:29:19
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anatomy
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exam 2
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  1. Cervicis? Illioscostalis-
    • Origin: Superior 6 Ribs
    • Insertion: Middle Cervical Vertebrae
    • Action: Extension, Lateral Flexion, Rotation of Upper Trunk
  2. Thoraics? Illiocostalis-
    • Origin: Inferior 6 Ribs
    • Insertion: Superior 6 Ribs
    • Action: Extension, Lateral Flexion, Rotation of middle trunk
  3. Lumborum? Illiocostalis-
    • Origin: Sacrum and Illium
    • Insertion: Inferior 6 Ribs
    • Action: Extension, Lateral Flexionn, Rotation of lower trunk
  4. Capitis? Longismis-
    • Origin: Upper Thoraic
    • Insertion: Base of Skull
    • Action: Extends Head
  5. Cervicis? Longismus-
    • Origin: C6 AND C7
    • Insertion: CS AND C3
    • Action: Extends Neck
  6. Thoracis? Longismus-
    • Origin: T11-L2
    • Insertion: Middle and upper thoraic
    • Action: Extends middle and lower trunk
  7. Psoas Minor?
    • Origin: T12-L1
    • Insertion: Pubic Crest
    • Action: Flexes trunk
  8. Quadratus Lumborum?
    • Origin: Illiac Crest
    • Insertion: Upper Lumbar and 12th Rib
    • Action: Trunk Lateral Flexion
  9. Rectus Adomonis?
    • Origin: Pubic Crest
    • Insertion: Lower Ribs
    • Action: Flexes Trunk
  10. External Oblique?
    • Origin: Ribs 5-12
    • Insertion: Illiac Crest
    • Action: Flexes and Rotates trunk
  11. Internal Oblique?
    • Origin: Illiac Crest
    • Insertion: Ribs 10-12
    • Action: Flexes and Rotates trunk
  12. True Ribs?
    Attach to Sternum
  13. False Ribs?
    Attach to cartilage to Sternum
  14. Floating Ribs?
    Do not attach to sternum
  15. Sternal End?
    Opposite side of head or rib
  16. Efferent?
    Input Mech
  17. Afferent?
    Output Mech
  18. Somatic?
    Muslce tissue
  19. Autonomic?
    Organ tissue
  20. Dendrites?
    Input
  21. Axons?
    Output
  22. Sensory?
    Action potential to CNS
  23. Motor?
    Action potential away from CNs
  24. Interneurons?
    Within CNS from one neuron to another, send info for function
  25. Multipolar?
    2 or more dendrites 1 axon
  26. Bipolar?
    1 dendrite 1 axon
  27. Unipolar
    0 dendrites 1 axon cant recieve
  28. Myelinated
    Myelin protects and insluatrs to prevent cross fire
  29. Nodes of Ranvier
    Greater speed of transmission and atinulate faster response
  30. Unnyelinated
    Slower response time
  31. Spinal cord?
    Extends from foramen magnum to second lumbar vertebrae
  32. Cervical
    Coordinate head and neck movement
  33. Throraic
    Control trunk
  34. Lumbar
    Stimulate upper lef lower body organs
  35. Sacral
    Lower leg lowest body organs
  36. Reflex arc
    Basic functional unit and simplest portion capable of receieving stimulus.
  37. Sensory receptor
    Skin located in body
  38. Sensory neuron
    Takes info to interneuron
  39. Interneuron
    Determines responsd
  40. Motor neuron
    Comes back
  41. Effect organ
    Muscle; creates response
  42. Stretch reflex
    Muscle contract in response to a stretching force applied to them
  43. Golgi tendon reflex
    Prevents contracting muscles from applying excessive tension to tendons
  44. Withdrawal reflex
    Function to remove a body limb from a pain stinulus

    Hot stove
  45. Withdrawal reflex with recip. Intervation
    Causes relaxarion of extensors muscles wheb flexor muslce contract

    Loss balance and fall on something painful
  46. Crossed extensor reflex
    Withdrawal reflex intitaited in lower limb when crossed extebsor reflex causes extension of opposite lower limb.

    Walking down stairs stepping on tack
  47. Brain stem
    Connects brain to spinal cord
  48. Medella oblongata
    Regulates heart rate sneezing coughing swallowing hiccup
  49. Pons
    Sleep and respiratory center
  50. Midbrain
    Auditory pathway in CNS
  51. Cerebellum
    involved in control of locomotion balance, posture, movement, muscle pulling on bones
  52. Dicephalon?
    Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Subthalamus, Epithalamus
  53. Thalamus
    • Largest part
    • most sensory input
    • influence mood
  54. subthalamus?
    Controlling motor
  55. Epithalamus?
    Pineal gland may control sleep cycle as a backup
  56. Hypothalamus?
    • Endocrine control
    • muscle
    • body temp
    • food and water intake reg
    • emotions
    • regulation of sleep cycle
  57. Cerebrum?
    • Largest brain tissue
    • right and left brained
    • lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
  58. Cortex?
    Outer surface
  59. Medulla?
    Center of Cerebrum
  60. Cerebrospinal fluid
    • protects brain from slidding and damaging
    • provide nutrients & takes waste
  61. Brain Blood Supply
    • 15-20% of blood the heart pumps
    • high metabolic rate
    • receives blood through arteries
  62. Sympathetic?
    Excitatory, increase heart rate
  63. Enteric?
    Maintains functions, communicates with organs
  64. Parasympathetic?
    In charge of functions when body is at rest- salivating, digestions, urinating, etc.
  65. Cranial Nerve 1
    Olfactory, Sensory, smelling
  66. Cranial Nerve 2
    Optic- sensory, sight
  67. Cranial Nerve 3
    oculomotor-motor and para, moves eye
  68. Cranial Nerve 4
    Trochlear-motor
  69. Cranial Nerve 5
    Trigeminal- motor and sensory
  70. Cranial Nerve 6
    Abducens-motor
  71. Cranial Nerve 7
    Facial- motor, para,sensory
  72. Cranial Nerve 8
    vestiblelocochlear- sensory
  73. Cranial Nerve 9
    Glossophayngeal- motor, sensory, para
  74. Cranial Nerve 10
    Vagles- motor, sensory, para
  75. Cranial Nerve 11
    Accessory- motor
  76. Cranial Nerve 12
    Hypoglossal-motor
  77. Somatic Senses?
    Touch, press, temp, pain, propriception
  78. Visceral Senses?
    internal organs and consits of pain and pressure
  79. special senses?
    Smell, taste, sight, hearing and balance
  80. Mechanoreceptors?
    compression, bending, stretching of cells
  81. Chemoreceptors?
    smell and taste, chemical composition
  82. Thermoreceptors?
    Temp
  83. Photoreceptors?
    Light and vision
  84. Nocioreceptors?
    PAin
  85. Exteroreceptors?
    Associated with skin tissue, can also be any other receptors
  86. Visceroreceptors?
    associated with organs
  87. Proprioreceptors?
    • associated with tendons and joints
    • (knowing where the body is)
  88. Static Proprio?
    Knowing where body parts are when the body is still?
  89. Kinetic proprio?
    Knowing where body part is when the body is moving
  90. Primary?
    Have axons that conduct action potential: receive and responde to a stimulus
  91. Secondary?
    Have no axons and receptor potentials produced do not result in action potentials but cause release in neurotrans
  92. Sensory memory?
    • short term retention of sensory input
    • -dont remember it
  93. Short-term memory?
    • Info retained for a few minutes or seconds
    • -someone introducing themselves
  94. Explicit Long-term Memory?
    retention of facts and emotions
  95. Implicit Long-term memory?
    developmental skills, bike ridding, driving a car
  96. Effects of Aging on Nervous System?
    • -Gradual decline in sensory and motor
    • -Size and weight of brain decreases
    • -Reflexes slow
    • -decreased short term memory in some people
    • -long-term unaffected or improved
  97. Olfaction?
    • Odorants bind to chemorecep molecules
    • Depolarize and intiate action potentials in neurons
    • low threshold for odor detection
  98. Taste?
    detected by taste buds, receptors on hairs detect dissolved substances
  99. Taste Types
    Sour, salty, bitter, unami (meat) and sweet
  100. Eyebrows?
    Protect, filter sunlight
  101. Eyelids?
    Protect, squint, close,
  102. Lashes?
    Filter out damaging and helps focus light
  103. Tear glands?
    protect, liquid to lubricate eye
  104. Lacrimal Apparatus?
    Lubrication
  105. Extrinsic Eye Muscles?
    - create movement
  106. Conjunctiva?
    Inner Eyelid
  107. Optic Nerve?
    Tracts, Pathways
  108. Eyes respond to ___ and intitate ____ action potentials?
    Light, afferent
  109. Myopia?
    Near sighted, recognize close objects
  110. Hyperopia?
    Far sighted, recognize far objects
  111. Presbyopia?
    degeneration of accomadation, cant focus on thingsm corrected by reading glasses
  112. Astigmatism?
    Cornea or lens not uniformly curved
  113. Strabismus?
    Cross eyed- lack of parrallel light paths
  114. Retinal detachment?
    can result in complete blindness
  115. Glaucoma?
    Increased pressure
  116. Cataract?
    Clouding of lens
  117. Macular degeneration/>
    loss in acute vision, loss in muscle strength
  118. Diabetes?
    Dysfunction of peripheral circulation loss in eye function
  119. External Ear?
    terminates at eardrum, gets sounds
  120. Middle ear?
    Hearing, auditory ossicles, equalization in pressure
  121. Inner-
    hearing and balance, interconnecting fluid-filled tunnels and channels
  122. External Ear?
    • Pinna- elastic cartliage
    • External auditory meatus
    • lined with hairs and cerminous gland
  123. Tympanic Membrane?
    Ear drum, vibrated by sounds
  124. Middle ear?
    • Auditory or Eustachian tube
    • opens into pharynx to equalize pressure
    • ossicles, mallues, stapes, incus
    • transmit vibrations
  125. Oval window?
    Separates middle from inner
  126. Inner Ear?
    • Bony
    • cochlea- hearing, vesitbule- balance, semicircular canals- balance
    • membranous
  127. Pitch?
    high or low sound is
  128. Loudness?
    Function of wave length
  129. Static Balance?
    • Evaluates postition of head
    • Detecr linear acceleration and deceleration
  130. Kinetic Balance?
    • Evaluates movements of head
    • 3 semicircular canals
  131. Effects of Aging of Special Senses?
    • -loss in detecting odors
    • -decrease taste
    • -eye lens lose flexibility
    • -cataracts, etc
    • -decline in visual acuity, color perception, possbile color blindness
  132. Past 5 Superbowl Winners?
    • 1. Packers
    • 2. Saints
    • 3.Steelers
    • 4. Giants
    • 5. Colts
  133. Past 5 Stanley Cup?
    • 1. Bruins
    • 2. Blackhawks
    • 3. Penguins
    • 4. Redwings
    • 5. Ducks
  134. Past 5 Masters?
    • 1. Schwartzel
    • 2. Mickelson
    • 3.Cabrera
    • 4. Immelmon
    • 5. Johnson
  135. 5 World Cups?
    • 1. Italy
    • 2. Brazil
    • 3. France
    • 4. Brazil
    • 5. West Germany
  136. NBA?
    • 1. Mavericks
    • 2. Lakers
    • 3. Lakers
    • 4. Lakers
    • 5. Spurs
  137. Tour de France?
    • 1. Contador
    • 2.Contador
    • 3. Sastre
    • 4. Contador
    • 5. Pererio
  138. Wimbeldon?
    • 1. Nadal
    • 2. Federer
    • 3. Nadal
    • 4. Federer
    • 5. Federer
  139. NCAA Football?
    • 1. Auburn
    • 2.Alabama
    • 3. Florida
    • 4. LSU
    • 5. Florida

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