foam general

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foam general
2011-06-22 18:42:41
foam general

foam general
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  1. Fire spread by convection is mostly in _____ direction
  2. Heat can travel where ___ does not exist
  3. Radiant heat is one of the major sources of fire spread to
  4. Generally the ____ process requires less heat input than does the _____ process
    Vaporization - Pyrolysis
  5. The degree of fuel flammability is determined by
    Characteristics of the fuel, including shape and size, position, density, water solubility, reactivity, and volatility
  6. MSDSs contain specific information on characteristics for materials that are considered hazardous. What are these characteristics ?
    shape and size, position, density, water solubility, reactivity, and volatility
  7. Vapor density is a concern with?
    Volitile liquids and gaseous fuels
  8. Most flammable liquids have a specific gravity of
    Less than one
  9. Liquid fuels with flash points greater than waters boiling point (212) react ____ to water and foam extinguishment applications
  10. Water boils on contact with hot fuel causing a dangerous frothover condition when ____ are encountered
    Fuel tank fires
  11. The higher the vapor pressure of a liquid the greater the rate at which it _____ and the lower it's ____ becomes.
    Evaporates, boiling point
  12. The flash point is the___of the fuel
  13. The spread of fire in an open area is primarily due to heat energy transmitted from the ____ to nearby ___.
    Plume, fuels
  14. Fire spread in outside fires is increased by ____ and ____ , which allows exposed fuels to _____.
    Wind, a sloping surface, preheat
  15. When the gases reach the ceiling, the ceiling covering materials absorb heat energy by
  16. The growth stage continues as long as there is sufficient
    Fuel and oxygen and available
  17. Compartment fires in the growth stage are usually ____ controlled
  18. Temperature range of flashover is approximately
    900 to 1200
  19. Ignition temperature of carbon monoxide
    1128°F or 609°C
  20. Flashover temperature range correlates with the ignition temperature of
    Carbon monoxide
  21. One of the most common gases released by pyrolysis (sublimation)
    Carbon monoxide
  22. During this period, The burning fuels are releasing the maximum amount of heat possible and producing large volume of unburned fire gases
    Fully developed
  23. Rollover AKA
    Flame over AKA
  24. Occurs when flames move through or across unburned fire gases during a fires progression
    Rollover (flameover)
  25. Rollover is distinguished from flashover because
    Only the gases are burning in roll over, not the entire contents of the compartment
  26. What structural members retain heat for a long time following extinguishment
    Concrete and steel
  27. Fire in a confined compartment or structure has two particularly important characteristics what are they ?
    Limited amount of oxygen and the fire gases released are trapped and build up
  28. Factors that impact the development of a fire in a compartment :
    • 1. Size and # of vent openings
    • 2. Volume
    • 3. Height
    • 4. Size and location of the first fire group
  29. The plumes of burning fuel in the center of a compartment ?
    Entrain more air and thus are cooler than those aginst the ceiling or in the corners
  30. The temps that develop in a compartment are the direct result of the ?
    Energy released as the fuels burn
  31. The heat rising in a fire plume is transported by
    Covection and radiation
  32. As the hot gases travel over surfaces of other fuels in the compartment, heat is transferred to them by
  33. Factors that effect the development of a fire outside a compartment are
    • 1. Wind direction and velocity
    • 2. Relative humidity
    • 3 terrain and slope
    • 4. Size composition, and location of the fuel package that is first ignited
    • 5. Availability and locations of additional fuel packages (target fuels)
  34. In an exterior fire what determines the amount of heat generated ?
    The quanity, type, and physical makeup of the primary fuel source
  35. What are the products of combustion ?
    Heat, light, smoke, fire gases, and flame
  36. In an exterior fire Wind direction and velocity determine?
    Fire-suppresion attack tactics and extinguishing agent choices
  37. Large transformer oil capacity
    20,000-25,000 gallons
  38. Smaller vaulted or subterranean transformers oil capacity
    300-20,000 gallons
  39. What is the only way to extinguish a smoldering fire
  40. Water extinguishes fire either through
    Cooling (or quenching) or smothering
  41. The advantages of water that are extremely valuable for fire extinguishment are
    • 1. Readily avalible and in expensive
    • 2. Greater heat absorbing capacity than other extinguishing agents
    • 3. Large amount of heat required to turn ro steam
    • 4. Greater the surface area the more heat is absorbed
  42. At normal temp _____ water exist in a liquid state
  43. Smothering is accomplished when the. Expansion of steam
    Reduces oxygen in a confined space
  44. Disadvantages of water
    • 1. Reignition barrier
    • 2. Low viscocity
    • 3. Absorbsion
    • 4. Reacts w/ some materials
    • 5. Collapse from weight
    • 6. May spread flammable liquids when they float on waterw surface
    • 7. Runoff
    • 8. Electrocution hazard
    • 9. Freezes. Requires anti freeze
  45. Class D materials are particularly hazardous in?
    Powdered forms
  46. Medium expansion foam most commonly used at a rate of 20:1 to 200:1 through
    Hydralically operated nozzle-style delivery devices
  47. Most modern foam concentrates may be stored for long periods of time in excess of
    10 years
  48. Optimum storage life can be achieved by ?
    Following manufacturers recommendations onfoam concentrate storage containers and there related enviormental conditions
  49. To prevent corrosion on metal parts, pumps, hoselines, proportioners, and nozzles flush with____ . Always ____ moving parts of ___,____, and____ after using foams.
    1. Clean water following each use of foam
  50. ____ are all compatible with CO, halon substitute, and dry chemical agents and may be ___ _____ with them.
    • 1. AFFF, FFFP, and Fluoroprotein foams
    • 2. Simultaneously discharged
  51. Using foam , halon substitute , and dry chemical agents together is commonly known as
    Multiagent attack
  52. Several different types of special apparatus are used for multiagent applications ranging from ?
    Small cart-mounted units commonly found in industrial facilities to large ARFF VEHICLES.
  53. The biodegradability of foam in either solution or concentrate form is determined by:
    The rate at which environmental bacterias dissolve or degrade (break down) the foam.
  54. Where AFFF concentrate is concerned, environmental issues revolve around
    Glycol ethers (AKA butylcarbitol) and perfluorooctylsulfonates (PFOS).
  55. Some AFFF concentrates use _______ as a water-dispersing solvent and
  56. refractive index tracker is used to determine
    The concentration of the finished foam when it has been aplied to a fuel.
  57. EPA determined that both ____and____ might be hazardous to the environment
    Glycol ethers and PFOS
  58. Elements that affect the drainage process ?
    Fuel temp, heat of the fire, size of the flame front, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temp and wind.
  59. Thick and viscous concentrates are typically
  60. Thinner concentrates are generally found in the
    non-alcohol resistant AFFF FFFP AND FLUOROPROTEIN FOAM Or class A foams
  61. ____ and ____ tend to be fast drainers that spread rapidly across liquid fuel surfaces
    AFFF and FFFP
  62. Class A concentrate is a formulation* of
    Hydrocarbon surfacants
  63. Shelf life of class A concentrate
  64. Class A foam is used in ___ percentages harm to the environment is ___ concern under ordinary conditions. Take care to prevent direct discharge of concentrates into ___and___
    • 1. Small
    • 2. Not
    • 3. Public or private waterways
    • 4. Sanitary sewer systems
  65. Characteristics that affect class A foam ? (6)
    • 1. Surface tension reduction
    • 2. Expasion
    • 3. Drainage
    • 4. Consistency
    • 5. Retention
    • 6. Viscocity
  66. Consistency is an important cideration when establishing class A foam
    Delivery to a fire
  67. Class A foam does not adhere to?
    Hot, fuel surfaces in excess of 212° F
  68. Affects retention time for class A foam :
    Air temp, wind movement, fuels latent heat, and the amount of heat present
  69. Class A foam concentrates are mixed in proportions of
    .01% to 1%
  70. Most foam nozzles produce more stable finished foams at a ___ % concentration than they do at ___% to ___% concentrations
    • 1) 1%
    • 2) .4%
    • 3) .5%
  71. Employing %s greater than ___ with standard fog nozzles does not appear to increase fire-fighting performance
  72. Exposure protection may be enhanced w/ class A foam through ___ at ___ proportioning settings
    • 1. Fog nozzles
    • 2. 1% or greater
  73. Common guidelines for class A foam concentrate proportioning: attack and overhaul with standard fog nozzles
    .2% -.5%
  74. Common guidelines for class A foam concentrate proportioning: Exposure protection with standard fog nozzles:
  75. Common guidelines for class A foam concentrate proportioning: Most operations with air-aspirating foam nozzles-
  76. Common guidelines for class A foam concentrate proportioning: Most operations with CAFS
  77. With ___ finished foam, a strong need to adjust the air and concentrate ratio is present
  78. The use of class A foam in finished or ___ can play a major role in extinguishing deeply concentrated fires
    Plain solution forms
  79. Exposure protection may be enhanced with applying class A foam through fog nozzles at ?
    1% or greater proprtioning settings
  80. Class B finished foam may be proportioned into the fire stream via
    Fixed system, apparatus mounted system, or portable foam proportioning equipment
  81. CLASS B
    The foam may be applied either with standard fog( ___ and___) or with air aspirating foam nozzles (___)
    • 1. AFFF and FFFP
    • 2. ALL KINDS
  82. ___ listed AFFF must pass more stringent test than ___listed AFFF
    • 1. Mil-spec
    • 2. UL
  83. Freeze protected AR-AFFF concentrates may not be ___ because the antifreeze additives tend to ___?
    • 1. UL-listed
    • 2. Reduce the effectivness of finished foam
  84. To be effective, a good class B foam must contain the right lend of the following characteristics:
    • 1. Water retention
    • 2. Finished foam life
    • 3. Heat resistence
    • 4. Multiporpose use
    • 5. Viscosity
    • 6. Knockdown speed and flow
    • 7. Fuel resistence
    • 8. Vapor surpresion
    • 9. Alcohol resistance
    • 10. Quarter life
  85. Water retention properties of finished foam are the keys to
    Characteristics of good class B foams: Long-life vapor supresion
  86. The life of finished foam is affected by
    heat, type of concentrate, expansion ratio, fuel involved, and environmental conditions.
  87. Most finished foam breaks down when the fuel's temp is near or over
  88. foam breaks down rapidly as the fuel temp rises and will perhaps become ineffective when the fuels temp is near or over
  89. Highly viscous liquid concentrates are very thick and difficult to proportion through some types of foam pumps. Typically these viscous foams are?
  90. Foams with high fuel resistance can be used for
    Fixed system subsurface injection into storage tanks
  91. ___,___,and___foams poses a fuel resistance that prevents contamination of the foam
    AFFF, FFFP, Fluoroprotein
  92. ___,___,and___foams have little or no fuel resistance
    Regular protein, high-expansion, and class A
  93. Alcohol resistant foam concentrates are formulated to protect the finished foam by providing a
    Barrier (membrane) between the fuel and finished foam
  94. Quarter-life is the time required in minutes for ___ of the total liquid solution to drain from the finished foam
  95. 1% AR foams are available for use on hydrocarbon spill fires using
    Type III application devices and procedures
  96. Type III devices may include
    Foam connon or handheld nozzles
  97. When employing AFFF, FFFP, or AR-AFFF solution on a hydrocarbon spill fire, the discharge rate should equal
    10% of the area of a spill
  98. Once the fire is extinguished, finished foam consumption is only affected by the
    Latent heat of the fuel,weather, and natural drainage rate
  99. Medium and high-expansion foam concentrates are used in large volumes for
    Vapor suppresion or to flood confined spaces
  100. Although rare, May still be found in a fixed fire-suppression system
    Regular protein foam concentrste
  101. Regular protein generally has ___ heat stability, it is not as mobile or fluid as ___ or ___ is___ fuel pickup available in __ and __ % concentrations __ water retention capabilities __ heat resistance performance ___ affected by freezing an thawing store at temp range from __to__. freeze protection ?__
    dry chemical compatible?
    Used on ?
    • 1. Very good
    • 2. Synthetic-based or modern fluoroprotein
    • 3. Very suseptable
    • 4. 3 and 6
    • 5. Exellent
    • 6. High
    • 7. Can be
    • 8. 35° to 120°
    • 9. Yes
    • 10. No
    • 11. Only hydrocarbons
  102. Fluoroprotein foam combination of ___ and ___
    Protein and synthetic
  103. Oleophobic (oil shedding)
    Fluoroprotein foam
  104. When fluorinated surfactant was added to detergent foam concentrates, the water that drains from foam blanket floated on jet fuel this known as
    Auqueous film
  105. The most commonly used foam today
  106. Completely synthetic, consist of fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfacants combined with high boiling point solvents and water
  107. Pre mixable in portable extinguishers and water tanks
  108. Stores at temperatures ranging from 25°-120°
  109. When applied to polar solvent fuels they create a membrane
  110. high heat resistance
    • Regular protein
    • FFFP
  111. Fast knockdown
    • FFFP
    • AFFF
  112. Can be Plunged into fuel
  113. Good low temp viscosity
  114. Designed solely for use on unignited spills of hazardous liquids
  115. Poor heat resistance because the air-to-water ratio is very high
    High expansion
  116. Wheather the finished foam is high or med is determined by the type of
    Application device used
  117. High expansion foam has three basic applications
    • 1. Concealed space
    • 2. Fixed-extinguishing systems
    • 3. Class A applications
  118. Suitable for subsurface injection
    • AR-FFFP
    • AFFF
    • AR-AFFF
  119. Available in 3-6% concentrations
    • Fluoroprotein
    • FFFP
  120. Performance not affected by freezing or thawing
    • Fluoroprotein
    • FFFP
  121. Stores between 35°-120°
    • Fluoroprotein
    • FFFP
  122. Comparable with dry chem.
    • Fluoroprotein
    • FFFP
    • AFFF
  123. For use with fresh or salt water
    • AFFF
    • FFFP
  124. Does not work effectively with water-soluble or water Miscible
  125. Slow draining foam blankets are desirable when
    Long-term vapor suppresion is desired
  126. Uses a foam eductor, inductor, line proportioner, or ratio controller
    Eduction (induction)
  127. Uses a foam-concentrate pump or bladder proportioner to pump foam concentrate at the appropriate ratio into a water stream
  128. Uses a "dump and pump" or one time use process
    Batch mixing
  129. Stores in a solution ready to use. One of the more commonly used methods of proportioning
  130. Uses an external pump or head pressure to force foam concentrate Into the fire stream at the right ratio for the flow desired
  131. Simplest method of mixing foam. Is commonly used to mix foam concentrates within a fire apparatus water tank
    Batch mixing
  132. Commonly practiced with class A foam and can be done with all concentrate except AR-AFFF
    Batch mixing
  133. "dump and pump"
    Batch mixing
  134. One of the most commonly used methods of proportioningl
  135. This type of proportioning is Typically used with portable fire extinguishers, skid-mounted multiagent extinguishers, wheeled fire extinguishers, and vehicle mounted tank extinguishing systems
  136. ____ concentrate is particularly prone to evaporation
  137. IBC range in capacity from ?
    • 250-450 gallons
    • Depending on the manufacturer
  138. Tank capacities for foam tankers are:
    1,500 to 8,000
  139. These vehicles may be built on a straight frame with tandem rear axles or as tractor trailers
    Foam tenders
  140. Foam concentrate tanks are found on
    Municipal and industral fire and emergency service pumpers, foam tenders, and ARFF APPARATUS
  141. Foam concentrate tanks on pumpers range from
    20-200 gallons
  142. ARFF apparatus may carry concentrate in excess of
    600 gallons
  143. Apparatus foam tanks must be fitted with ___ and ___ to Prevnet evaporation.
    Airtight tank lids and vacuum/pressure vent
    • Water
    • Dispersing solvent
    • Evaporation
  145. Fixed fire suppression system tanks sizes vary but tanks in exceeds of ___ are common
    3,000 gallons
  146. Storage tank-size variables include the following:
    • • size or capacity of the foam fire-supression system
    • • hazard being protected
    • • discharge duration required for extinguishment
  147. On-site storage tanks usually have ____ and ____ that permit the refilling of apparatus tanks from above this type of system takes the place of ____ filling
    • • Permanent transfer pumps and overhead piping
    • • ground level