Most modern foam concentrates may be stored for long periods of time in excess of
Optimum storage life can be achieved by ?
Following manufacturers recommendations onfoam concentrate storage containers and there related enviormental conditions
To prevent corrosion on metal parts, pumps, hoselines, proportioners, and nozzles flush with____ . Always ____ moving parts of ___,____, and____ after using foams.
1. Clean water following each use of foam
____ are all compatible with CO, halon substitute, and dry chemical agents and may be ___ _____ with them.
1. AFFF, FFFP, and Fluoroprotein foams
2. Simultaneously discharged
Using foam , halon substitute , and dry chemical agents together is commonly known as
Several different types of special apparatus are used for multiagent applications ranging from ?
Small cart-mounted units commonly found in industrial facilities to large ARFF VEHICLES.
The biodegradability of foam in either solution or concentrate form is determined by:
The rate at which environmental bacterias dissolve or degrade (break down) the foam.
Where AFFF concentrate is concerned, environmental issues revolve around
Glycol ethers (AKA butylcarbitol) and perfluorooctylsulfonates (PFOS).
Some AFFF concentrates use _______ as a water-dispersing solvent and
refractive index tracker is used to determine
The concentration of the finished foam when it has been aplied to a fuel.
EPA determined that both ____and____ might be hazardous to the environment
Glycol ethers and PFOS
Elements that affect the drainage process ?
Fuel temp, heat of the fire, size of the flame front, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temp and wind.
Thick and viscous concentrates are typically
Thinner concentrates are generally found in the
non-alcohol resistant AFFF FFFP AND FLUOROPROTEIN FOAM Or class A foams
____ and ____ tend to be fast drainers that spread rapidly across liquid fuel surfaces
AFFF and FFFP
Class A concentrate is a formulation* of
Shelf life of class A concentrate
Class A foam is used in ___ percentages harm to the environment is ___ concern under ordinary conditions. Take care to prevent direct discharge of concentrates into ___and___
3. Public or private waterways
4. Sanitary sewer systems
Characteristics that affect class A foam ? (6)
1. Surface tension reduction
Consistency is an important cideration when establishing class A foam
Delivery to a fire
Class A foam does not adhere to?
Hot, fuel surfaces in excess of 212° F
Affects retention time for class A foam :
Air temp, wind movement, fuels latent heat, and the amount of heat present
Class A foam concentrates are mixed in proportions of
.01% to 1%
Most foam nozzles produce more stable finished foams at a ___ % concentration than they do at ___% to ___% concentrations
Employing %s greater than ___ with standard fog nozzles does not appear to increase fire-fighting performance
Exposure protection may be enhanced w/ class A foam through ___ at ___ proportioning settings
1. Fog nozzles
2. 1% or greater
Common guidelines for class A foam concentrate proportioning: attack and overhaul with standard fog nozzles
Common guidelines for class A foam concentrate proportioning: Exposure protection with standard fog nozzles:
Common guidelines for class A foam concentrate proportioning: Most operations with air-aspirating foam nozzles-
Common guidelines for class A foam concentrate proportioning: Most operations with CAFS
With ___ finished foam, a strong need to adjust the air and concentrate ratio is present
The use of class A foam in finished or ___ can play a major role in extinguishing deeply concentrated fires
Plain solution forms
Exposure protection may be enhanced with applying class A foam through fog nozzles at ?
1% or greater proprtioning settings
Class B finished foam may be proportioned into the fire stream via
Fixed system, apparatus mounted system, or portable foam proportioning equipment
The foam may be applied either with standard fog( ___ and___) or with air aspirating foam nozzles (___)
1. AFFF and FFFP
2. ALL KINDS
___ listed AFFF must pass more stringent test than ___listed AFFF
Freeze protected AR-AFFF concentrates may not be ___ because the antifreeze additives tend to ___?
2. Reduce the effectivness of finished foam
To be effective, a good class B foam must contain the right lend of the following characteristics:
1. Water retention
2. Finished foam life
3. Heat resistence
4. Multiporpose use
6. Knockdown speed and flow
7. Fuel resistence
8. Vapor surpresion
9. Alcohol resistance
10. Quarter life
Water retention properties of finished foam are the keys to
Characteristics of good class B foams: Long-life vapor supresion
The life of finished foam is affected by
heat, type of concentrate, expansion ratio, fuel involved, and environmental conditions.
Most finished foam breaks down when the fuel's temp is near or over
foam breaks down rapidly as the fuel temp rises and will perhaps become ineffective when the fuels temp is near or over
Highly viscous liquid concentrates are very thick and difficult to proportion through some types of foam pumps. Typically these viscous foams are?
Foams with high fuel resistance can be used for
Fixed system subsurface injection into storage tanks
___,___,and___foams poses a fuel resistance that prevents contamination of the foam
AFFF, FFFP, Fluoroprotein
___,___,and___foams have little or no fuel resistance
Regular protein, high-expansion, and class A
Alcohol resistant foam concentrates are formulated to protect the finished foam by providing a
Barrier (membrane) between the fuel and finished foam
Quarter-life is the time required in minutes for ___ of the total liquid solution to drain from the finished foam
1% AR foams are available for use on hydrocarbon spill fires using
Type III application devices and procedures
Type III devices may include
Foam connon or handheld nozzles
When employing AFFF, FFFP, or AR-AFFF solution on a hydrocarbon spill fire, the discharge rate should equal
10% of the area of a spill
Once the fire is extinguished, finished foam consumption is only affected by the
Latent heat of the fuel,weather, and natural drainage rate
Medium and high-expansion foam concentrates are used in large volumes for
Vapor suppresion or to flood confined spaces
Although rare, May still be found in a fixed fire-suppression system
Regular protein foam concentrste
Regular protein generally has ___ heat stability, it is not as mobile or fluid as ___ or ___ is___ fuel pickup available in __ and __ % concentrations __ water retention capabilities __ heat resistance performance ___ affected by freezing an thawing store at temp range from __to__. freeze protection ?__
dry chemical compatible?
Used on ?
1. Very good
2. Synthetic-based or modern fluoroprotein
3. Very suseptable
4. 3 and 6
7. Can be
8. 35° to 120°
11. Only hydrocarbons
Fluoroprotein foam combination of ___ and ___
Protein and synthetic
Oleophobic (oil shedding)
When fluorinated surfactant was added to detergent foam concentrates, the water that drains from foam blanket floated on jet fuel this known as
The most commonly used foam today
Completely synthetic, consist of fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfacants combined with high boiling point solvents and water
Pre mixable in portable extinguishers and water tanks
Stores at temperatures ranging from 25°-120°
When applied to polar solvent fuels they create a membrane
high heat resistance
Can be Plunged into fuel
Good low temp viscosity
Designed solely for use on unignited spills of hazardous liquids
Poor heat resistance because the air-to-water ratio is very high
Wheather the finished foam is high or med is determined by the type of
Application device used
High expansion foam has three basic applications
1. Concealed space
2. Fixed-extinguishing systems
3. Class A applications
Suitable for subsurface injection
Available in 3-6% concentrations
Performance not affected by freezing or thawing
Stores between 35°-120°
Comparable with dry chem.
For use with fresh or salt water
Does not work effectively with water-soluble or water Miscible
Slow draining foam blankets are desirable when
Long-term vapor suppresion is desired
Uses a foam eductor, inductor, line proportioner, or ratio controller
Uses a foam-concentrate pump or bladder proportioner to pump foam concentrate at the appropriate ratio into a water stream
Uses a "dump and pump" or one time use process
Stores in a solution ready to use. One of the more commonly used methods of proportioning
Uses an external pump or head pressure to force foam concentrate Into the fire stream at the right ratio for the flow desired
Simplest method of mixing foam. Is commonly used to mix foam concentrates within a fire apparatus water tank
Commonly practiced with class A foam and can be done with all concentrate except AR-AFFF
"dump and pump"
One of the most commonly used methods of proportioningl
This type of proportioning is Typically used with portable fire extinguishers, skid-mounted multiagent extinguishers, wheeled fire extinguishers, and vehicle mounted tank extinguishing systems
____ concentrate is particularly prone to evaporation
IBC range in capacity from ?
Depending on the manufacturer
Tank capacities for foam tankers are:
1,500 to 8,000
These vehicles may be built on a straight frame with tandem rear axles or as tractor trailers
Foam concentrate tanks are found on
Municipal and industral fire and emergency service pumpers, foam tenders, and ARFF APPARATUS
Foam concentrate tanks on pumpers range from
ARFF apparatus may carry concentrate in excess of
Apparatus foam tanks must be fitted with ___ and ___ to Prevnet evaporation.
Airtight tank lids and vacuum/pressure vent
AR-AFFF ISA PARTICULAR CONCERN IT HAS ___ RATHER THAN A _____ IN IT'S FORMULATION AND IS PRONE TO _______
Fixed fire suppression system tanks sizes vary but tanks in exceeds of ___ are common
Storage tank-size variables include the following:
• size or capacity of the foam fire-supression system
• hazard being protected
• discharge duration required for extinguishment
On-site storage tanks usually have ____ and ____ that permit the refilling of apparatus tanks from above this type of system takes the place of ____ filling