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  1. allele
    one member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome
  2. amniocentesis
    procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is drawn out of the uterus through a needle inserted into the abdomen
  3. anomaly
    deviation or departure from the normal or common order
  4. autosomes
    a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
  5. expression
    biochemical processes that determine which genes are actively transcribed and translated into mRNA and proteins in a cell and under what conditions
  6. gene penetration
    frequency of expression of the gene amoung individuals carrying the gene
  7. genotype
    total of the hereditary information present in an organism
  8. heterozygous
    two different genes controlling a specified inherited trait
  9. homozygous
    identical genes controlling a specified inherited trait
  10. incomplete dominant
    intermediate inheritance in which one allele for one specific trait is not completely dominant ove the other allele
  11. karyotype
    a visual demonstration of the pairs of cell chromostomes arranged in order of size
  12. meiosis
    a process of two successive cell divisions, producing cells, egg or sperm, that contain half the number of chromosomes in somatic cells
  13. mitosis
    a process of cell reproduction resulting in two daughter cells with the same DNA as the parent cell
  14. mutation
    a change in the genetic makeup of a cell, which will be inherited
  15. neonate
    newborn child
  16. organogenesis
    the formation and differentiation organs and systems during embryonic development
  17. phenotype
    the characteristics manifested by a person depending on genetic and environmental factors
  18. polygenic
    pertaining to or caused by several genes
  19. teratogen
    a substance or condition that impairs normal development of the embryo or fetus in the utero, causing a congenital abnormality
  20. trisomy
    having three homologous chromosomes per cell instead of two
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