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Actions that are unexpected and often evaluated negatively because they differ from typical or usual behavior
Deviation from the average or the usal
Acute: Sudden beginning of a disease or disorder
Insidious: Development of a disorder that occurs gradually over an extended period of time
Age of Onset
Person's age when he or she develops or exhibits symptoms of a disease or condition
Classical and Operant Conditioning
Classical: Fundamental learning process first dexcribed by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned simulus that by itself can elicit the desired response.
Operant: Fundamental behavioral learning process in which responses are modified by their consequences (reinforcers, punishers, extinction and so on)
Clinical Psychologist and Counseling Psychologist.
Clinical: Person who has earned a Ph.D or related degree (e.g. Psy.d.) in psychology and is trained to conduct research into the causes adn treatment of severe psychological disorders as well as to diagnose, assess, and treat them.
Counseling: Person who has earned a Ph.D or related degree in psychology and is trained to study and treat adjusment and vocational issues in relatively healthy people
- Course: Pattern of development and change of a disorder over time
- Incidence: Stats on how many new cases occur during a given period of time
- Prevalence: How many people in the population have a disorder
Situation in which an emotional reaction spreads from one individual to others nearby
Pattern of a disorder alternating between recovery and recurrence
Cause or source of a disorder
Bodily fluids (blood, black and yellow bile, and phlegm) that early theorists believed controlled normal and abnormal functioning
Hippocrates coined word. Physical symptoms appear to be the result of an organic pathology for which no organic cause can be found, such as paralysis and some kinds of blindness.
A witch-hunting handbook from the middle ages
Phenomenon in which people in groups share the same fear, delusion, abnormal behavior, or even physical symptoms as a result of psychological processes and suggestion
Mental Hygiene Movement
Mid-19th century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the publig of their mistreatment. Dorthea Dix is the reformer that started this movement.
19th Century psychosocial approach to treatment that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments.
- -The Nancy school, building on the work of Liebeault, led a debate, with Charcot on the opposing side, regarding the basis of hysteria.
- -The Nancy school collected substantial evidence about hysteria, yielding the first modern demonstration of a psychological basis for a
- mental disorder.
- -Breurer, building upon the work of the Nancy School, began using hypnosis to treat hysteria.
Psychiatric social worker
Nurse: Person with nursing training who specializes in care and treatment of psychiatric patients, usually in a hospital setting
Social worker: Person who has earned a MSW degree and is trained to work with social agencies to help psychologically disordered clients and their families
Psychiatris: Person who has earned an M.D. and then has specialized in psychiatry during residency training. They are trained to investigate primarily the biological nature and causes of psychiatric disorders and to diagnose and treat them.
Psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response.
Reappearence of or return to problem behaviors after treatment or recovery
STD caused by a bacterial microorganism entering the brain. Delusion of persecution and delusions of grandeur.
Expectation that mental health professionals will apply scientific methods to their work
Behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation.
- Supernatural: Generally, this is a belief that gods, devils, or other supernatural powers (in ancient times, wolves or the moon; in modern times, aliens, the CIA, etc.) cause abnormal behavior.Currently,scientists do not rely on supernatural explanations, although they may
- personally believe in such influences (seeing them as generally outside of science).
- Biological: From this perspective, abnormality arises from dysfunction in the body and from physical influences on the body.This
- tradition embodies endocrinology, genetics, neurology, and disease, as well as discredited approaches, such as humors (bodily fluids) and
- phrenology (bumps naturally found on the skull).
: This perspective is that abnormality arises from dysfunction in the mind.Ahost of psychological perspectives are available, including psychoanalytic, behaviorism, cognitive, interpersonal, humanistic, and existential.
Hippocrates (460-377 BC)
- -Emphasized natural causes over supernatural.
- -Saw the brain as central to thought and mental disorders.
- -Developed an early classification system (mania, melancholia, phrenitis [brain fever]) with clinical description of specific disorders within each general category.
- -Used advanced treatments for the state of knowledge at the time (interpreted dreams, thought environment was important).
- -Was heavily biological (hysteria due to a "wandering uterus") and emphasized imbalance of bodily humors (blood, black bile, yellow bile,
- and phlegm).
Galen (130-200 AD)
- Galen: Emphasized biology; first person to outline the nervous system.
- -Divided causes into physical and mental.
- -Considered causes such as injuries to head, alcohol, shock, fear, adolescence, menstrual changes, economic reverses, and disappointment in love.
Plato (429-347 BC)
- -Proposed the idea of the insanity defense.-Emphasized humane treatment of the mentally ill
- -Saw abnormal behavior as a variant of normal efforts to meet needs.
- -Used many psychological ideas similar to those used today, including talk therapy.
Jean-Baptiste Pussin and Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
- -Reforms, initially started in France by Pussin, received strong impetus from Pinel (Pussin's protégé), who received permission to improve conditions in the asylums.
- -Pinel's "experiment" was highly successful, allowing many to leave asylums.
- -Pinel's emphasis was on humane conditions more than treatment (although Pinel thought it important to talk to inmates about their problems).
William Tuke (1732-1822)
- -Tuke, a Quaker, opened a country house in England, the York Retreat, for patients.
- -He spread the ideas of Pinel, making Pinel's work more of a movement.
Benjamin Rush (1745-1813)
- -Rush, a U.S. physician interested in mental disorders, became known as the "father of American psychiatry."
- -He admitted the mentally ill to his medical hospital for treatment, thereby placing mental disorders under the medical umbrella.
- -He emphasized humane treatment, occupational therapy, and positive experiences.
- -He also believed that too much blood in the brain caused some mental illness, using techniques such as bloodletting, purging, and ice baths.
Dorothea Dix (1802-1887)
- -This great reformer started the mental hygiene movement, also focusing on jails and almshouses.
- -As a direct result of her tireless efforts, 32 new mental hospitals were built in the US.
- -Her focus was almost exclusively on physical conditions, drawing attention away from psychological approaches.
Father of modern psychodiagnosis
B. F. Skinner
Watson: Father of behaviorism
Pavlov: classical conditioning with dogs.
Skinner: established principles of operant conditioning
Bandura: developed a theory of social learning relevant to the learning of abnormal behavior patterns.
John Grey (1854)
Insanity was always due to physical causes.