Anatomy 1

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  1. chemicals
    atoms and molecules
  2. cells
    structual and functional units of life
  3. tissues
    groups of cells with similar structures and functions
  4. Organ
    group of tissues working together to perform a set of related functions
  5. systems
    group of organs working together to perform a set of related functions
  6. Body Ordering
    chemicals > cell > tissue > organ > organ system > body as a whole
  7. 12 body systems
    • Integumentary system
    • Skeletal system
    • Muscular system
    • Nervous system
    • Sensory system
    • Endocrine system
    • Cardiovascular system
    • Lymphatic system
    • Respiratory system
    • Digestive system
    • Urinary system
    • Reproductive system
  8. Body
    group of systems working together to maintain life
  9. cranial cavity
    contains the brain
  10. spinal cavity
    contains the spinal cord; runs continuously form the brainstem in the cranial cavity to the end of the spinal cord.
  11. Thoracic cavity
    contains the heart, lung, and large blood vessels; it is seperated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm; within the thoracic cavity lies the mediastinum, a smaller cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and large blood vessels
  12. abdominal cavity
    contains the stomach, most of the intestines, the kidneys, liver gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen; it is seperated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm and from the pelvic cavity by an imaginary line accross the top of the hip bones
  13. pelvic cavity
    contains the urinary bladder, rectum, and internal organs of the male/female reproductive systems; it is seperated from the abdominal cavity by an imaginary line between the hip bones
  14. anabolism
    builds up and repairs cells
  15. catabolism
    breaks down cells
  16. antebrachial
  17. axillary
  18. buccal
  19. celiac
  20. cervical
  21. cranial
  22. femoral
  23. inguinal
  24. mammary
  25. opthalmic
  26. palmar
  27. pectoral
  28. plantar
    sole of foot
  29. sacral
    lower spine
  30. umbilical
  31. antecubital
    area anterior to elbow
  32. brachial
    upper arm
  33. carpal
  34. cephalic
  35. costal
    ribs femal cervix
  36. cutaneous
  37. gluteal
  38. lumbar
    lower back
  39. occipital
    lower posterior area of head
  40. otic
  41. patellar
  42. pedal
  43. popliteal
    back of knee
  44. tarsal
  45. vertebral
  46. Isotonic solution
    this has the same concentration as intracellular fluid and moves in and out of the cell at the same rate
  47. hypotonic solution
    less concentrated that intracellular fluid, it results in ecess fluid entering the cell, and may cause the cell to rupture
  48. Hypertonic solution
    more concentratedthan intracellular fluid, it draws fluid away from the cell and causes the cell to shrink
  49. cell membrane
    thin outermost layer of the cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
  50. cytoplasm
    collodial substance found in the cell; holds other structures in place
  51. nuclear membrane
    thin layer surrounding the nucleus
  52. nucleus
    located in the center of the cell; controls cell activity and contains genetic material DNA
  53. nucleolus
    small structures in nucleus; holds ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomes essential for protein formation
  54. centriole
    rod shapped material in the cytoplasm that begins cell division
  55. cilia
    hairlike processes on the cell surface that move foriegn particles along the cell surface
  56. flagella
    whip like processes on the cell surface; accomodate cell movement
  57. diffusion
    movement of molecules from area of higher to lower concentration ( no cellular energy )
  58. osmosis
    water diffusion through a semipermeable membrane ( no cellular energy )
  59. filtration
    process of pushing water with dissolved materials through one side of a membrane (kidney filtration) no cellular energy
  60. active transport
    movement of molecules from area of lower to higher concentration ( cellular energy )
  61. phagocytosis
    ingestion and digestion of bacteria and other substances by phagocytic cells
  62. Epithelial tissue
    forms the outer surface of the body; lines body cavities and major tubes and passageways that open to the exterior
  63. cells - squamous
    flat and irregular
  64. cells - cuboidal
  65. cells - columnar
    long and narrow
  66. layers-simple
    one layer
  67. layers- stratified
    more than one layer
  68. Connective tissue
    supports and connects other tissues and structures
  69. soft
    areolar, adipose
  70. fibrous
    tendons, ligaments, capsules, fascia
  71. hard
    cartilage, bone
  72. liquid
    blood and lymph
  73. Muscle tissue
    produces movement
  74. skeletal muscle
    moves muscle and bone ( voluntary)
  75. cardiac muscle
    forms the heart (involuntary)
  76. smooth muscle
    forms visceral organs (involuntary)
  77. nerve tissue
    composed of neurons (nerve cells); provides networks to carry impulses
  78. membranes
    thin sheets of tissue that line and protect body structures
  79. Epithelial membranes
    serous membranes
    secrete watery fluid
  80. parietal membranes
    line body cavities
  81. visceral membranes
    cover internal organs ( pleura and pericardium are examples)
  82. mucous membranes
    secrete mucus and line tubes or spaces open to the the exterior
  83. cutaneous membrane
    the skin
  84. Connective tissue membranes
    synovial membranes
    line joint cavities
  85. meniges
    surround the brain and spinal cord and are composed of three layers
  86. fascia membranes
    seperate or bind muscles and permit movement of the skin
  87. pericardium
    surrounds the heart
  88. periosteum
    surrounds bone
  89. perichondrium
    surrounds cartilage
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Anatomy 1
A and P study tools for the AAMA exam
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