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Internal carotid arteries are _______ reistance.
External carotid arteries are _______ reistance.
__________, stenosis in the left proximal subclavain or brachiocephalic that makes a retrograde blood flow in the left or right vertebral.
Name the five section of the aorta
- Aortic Root
- Ascending aorta
- Descending aorta
- Abdominal aorta
- Bifuraction into the iliac arteries
What is sometimes used by Neurologists as a tool to diagnose intracranial vascular disease
When referring to transcranial doppler; operator experience,improper instrument setting, patient movement, absent of poor windows, anatomic vascular, distal branch disease, misinterpretation of collateral channels or vasospasm as a stenosis, displacement of arteries by an intracraial masss are example of what.
Name the three layers of arteries and veins
- Tunica Intimia
- Tunica Media
- Tunica Adventitia
What are three factors that affect vascular blood flow?
Which vessels are more eleasitc and do not collapse?
Which vessels have vavles and are usually larger in diameter?
Veins move with _____ motion and _____ motion.
Arteries flow due to _______ ________.
Name the two types of stroke and which is the most common?
- Ischemic (most common 80%)
What is Virchows Triad?
- 1)Blood coagulability
- 2) Venous Stasis
- 3) Wein Wall Injury
Pale skin coloration from reduced blood flow
Reddish blue discoloration (signifigant ischemia)
Inadequate perfusion leading to Ischemia
Sound caused by turbulent flow stenosis or atherosclerosis
Staggering and unsteadiness when walking
Inability to communicate
Transient partial or complete loss of visioin in one eye
Inability or difficulty swallowing
Unilateral partial or complete paralysis
Sensation of having objects move about the person of sensation of moving around space
What does the vascular system transport to the tissues?
O2 (gas) and nutrients
Which vessels serve as collaterals in the event of ICA stenosis or occlusion?
- Ophthalmic artery
- Circle of Willis
- Vertebral arteries
DVT with central venous lines are ________.
Sudden numbness or weak of face, arm, legs, on one side of the body
Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
Sudden headaches with no known cause
All are warning sign for ______
List uncotrolled risk factors for stroke
- Previous stroke/ TIA or heart attack
Affecting the same side of the body
Affecting the opposite side of the body
Name the lower extremity DEEP veins
- Common Femoral Vein
- Superficial Femoral Vein
- Popliteal Vein
Name the lower extremity SUPERFICIAL veins
- Greater Saphenous Vein
- Peroneal Vein
- Posterior Tibial Vein
Name the upper extremity DEEP veins
Name the upper extremity SUPERFICIAL veins
- Medial antecubital
Three factors affecting vascular blood flow:
What do perforator veins connect?
Deep and Superficial Veins
What type of transducer is used for vascular imaging?
Linear Phased Array
Why are mutiple focal zones important in vascular imaging?
varying depths allow beam to focus and clarify images
Define "B" mode:
Brightness mode depth of structure or region based on brightness of structure.
Transducer angle must be less than degrees to minimize errors. Based on the Doppler equation for every degrees over degrees there is a 23% error velocity measurement.
Standard Vascular Technique
- 1. Take velocity measurements at an angle of 60 degrees or less
- 2. Measure flow in lumen parallel to vessel walls.- NOT against vessel walls.
- 3. Use maximum peak systolic velocities and maximum end diastolic velocities
- 4. Use the same or near the same angle for velocities pre, within, and post stenosis
- 5. Measure at multiple Doppler velocity points to determine maximum velocity.
More elastic and contain more muscle fibers and elastic
don't normally collapse but do
have valves -arteries don't (except and which have valves except in a small % of population
usually larger in diameter
flow usually slower than flow
move with valve motion and calf motion- flow due to heart contractions.
- A, V
- V, vena cava, iliac
- Venous, arterial
- V, A
What are the flow characteristics in a stenotic lesion? Name at least 3 types.
- Laminar flow proximal to stenosis,
- dampened just prior to stenosis,
- turbulent within stenosis,
- disturbed and flow reversal distal.
Triphasic Arterial waveform
peak systolic, dicrotic notch, flow reversal and forward flow seen in waveform
no dicrotic notch sometimes no flowreversal, spectral broadcasting (from turbulence)
peak systolic more rounded,no dicrotic notch, rounded downslope
Symptoms of pulmonary embolus
- acute tachycardia
- acute chest pain
- acute shortness of breath
Signs and Symptoms associated with DVT
- homan, vein distension , edema
- pain at extremity, edema, fever
What is proper patient position to perform a lower extremity venous study?
laying down with extremity extended out just slightly