Vascular Review

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  1. Internal carotid arteries are _______ reistance.
  2. External carotid arteries are _______ reistance.
  3. __________, stenosis in the left proximal subclavain or brachiocephalic that makes a retrograde blood flow in the left or right vertebral.
    Subclavain steal
  4. Name the five section of the aorta
    • Aortic Root
    • Ascending aorta
    • Descending aorta
    • Abdominal aorta
    • Bifuraction into the iliac arteries
  5. What is sometimes used by Neurologists as a tool to diagnose intracranial vascular disease
    Transcranial Doppler
  6. When referring to transcranial doppler; operator experience,improper instrument setting, patient movement, absent of poor windows, anatomic vascular, distal branch disease, misinterpretation of collateral channels or vasospasm as a stenosis, displacement of arteries by an intracraial masss are example of what.
  7. Name the three layers of arteries and veins
    • Tunica Intimia
    • Tunica Media
    • Tunica Adventitia
  8. What are three factors that affect vascular blood flow?

    • Pressure
    • Resistance
    • Viscosity
  9. Which vessels are more eleasitc and do not collapse?
  10. Which vessels have vavles and are usually larger in diameter?
  11. Veins move with _____ motion and _____ motion.
    • valve
    • calf
  12. Arteries flow due to _______ ________.
    Heart contractions
  13. Name the two types of stroke and which is the most common?
    • Ischemic (most common 80%)
    • Hemorrhagic
  14. What is Virchows Triad?
    • 1)Blood coagulability
    • 2) Venous Stasis
    • 3) Wein Wall Injury
  15. Pale skin coloration from reduced blood flow
  16. Reddish blue discoloration (signifigant ischemia)
  17. Inadequate perfusion leading to Ischemia
    Ischemic Ulcers
  18. Necrotic tissue
  19. Sound caused by turbulent flow stenosis or atherosclerosis
  20. Staggering and unsteadiness when walking
  21. Inability to communicate
  22. Transient partial or complete loss of visioin in one eye
    Amaurosis fugax
  23. Double vision
  24. Inability or difficulty swallowing
  25. Unilateral partial or complete paralysis
  26. Sensation of having objects move about the person of sensation of moving around space
  27. What does the vascular system transport to the tissues?
    O2 (gas) and nutrients
  28. Which vessels serve as collaterals in the event of ICA stenosis or occlusion?

    • Ophthalmic artery
    • Circle of Willis
    • Vertebral arteries
    • ECA
  29. DVT with central venous lines are ________.
  30. Sudden numbness or weak of face, arm, legs, on one side of the body
    Sudden confusion
    Sudden dizziness
    Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
    Sudden headaches with no known cause
    All are warning sign for ______
  31. List uncotrolled risk factors for stroke

    • Age
    • Race
    • Heredity
    • Gender
    • Previous stroke/ TIA or heart attack
  32. Affecting the same side of the body
  33. Affecting the opposite side of the body
  34. Name the lower extremity DEEP veins

    • Common Femoral Vein
    • Superficial Femoral Vein
    • Popliteal Vein
  35. Name the lower extremity SUPERFICIAL veins

    • Greater Saphenous Vein
    • Peroneal Vein
    • Posterior Tibial Vein
  36. Name the upper extremity DEEP veins

    • IJC
    • Sudclavian
    • Axillary
    • Brachial
  37. Name the upper extremity SUPERFICIAL veins

    • Cephalic
    • Basilic
    • Medial antecubital
  38. Three factors affecting vascular blood flow:
    • Pressure
    • Resistance
    • Viscosity
  39. What do perforator veins connect?
    Deep and Superficial Veins
  40. What type of transducer is used for vascular imaging?
    Linear Phased Array
  41. Why are mutiple focal zones important in vascular imaging?
    varying depths allow beam to focus and clarify images
  42. Define "B" mode:
    Brightness mode depth of structure or region based on brightness of structure.
  43. Transducer angle must be less than degrees to minimize errors. Based on the Doppler equation for every degrees over degrees there is a 23% error velocity measurement.
    • 60
    • 5
    • 60
  44. Standard Vascular Technique
    • 1. Take velocity measurements at an angle of 60 degrees or less
    • 2. Measure flow in lumen parallel to vessel walls.- NOT against vessel walls.
    • 3. Use maximum peak systolic velocities and maximum end diastolic velocities
    • 4. Use the same or near the same angle for velocities pre, within, and post stenosis
    • 5. Measure at multiple Doppler velocity points to determine maximum velocity.
  45. More elastic and contain more muscle fibers and elastic
    don't normally collapse but do
    have valves -arteries don't (except and which have valves except in a small % of population
    usually larger in diameter
    flow usually slower than flow
    move with valve motion and calf motion- flow due to heart contractions.
    • A
    • A, V
    • V, vena cava, iliac
    • V
    • Venous, arterial
    • V, A
  46. What are the flow characteristics in a stenotic lesion? Name at least 3 types.
    • Laminar flow proximal to stenosis,
    • dampened just prior to stenosis,
    • turbulent within stenosis,
    • disturbed and flow reversal distal.
  47. Triphasic Arterial waveform
    peak systolic, dicrotic notch, flow reversal and forward flow seen in waveform
  48. Bi-phasic
    no dicrotic notch sometimes no flowreversal, spectral broadcasting (from turbulence)
  49. Monophasic
    peak systolic more rounded,no dicrotic notch, rounded downslope
  50. Symptoms of pulmonary embolus
    • acute tachycardia
    • acute chest pain
    • acute shortness of breath
    • edema
  51. Signs and Symptoms associated with DVT
    • Signs-
    • homan, vein distension , edema

    • Symptoms-
    • pain at extremity, edema, fever
  52. What is proper patient position to perform a lower extremity venous study?
    laying down with extremity extended out just slightly
Card Set
Vascular Review
Extracranial, Intercranial, and Extremity Vascular
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