Descriptive lesion terms

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Descriptive lesion terms
2011-06-21 16:46:02
Descriptive lesion terms

Descriptive lesion terms, mcdowell
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  1. Define macule.
    • Circumscribed area of epidermis or mucosa distinguished by
    • color from its surroundings

    Is neither elevated nor depressed, be of any size

    Lesions <1cm in diameter

    Ex: oral melanotic macule, amalgam, India ink/pencil tattoos

    “Pigmented Lesion”
  2. Define patch.
    Circumscribed area larger than a macule

    Is neither elevated nor depressed

    Color, texture, or both

    Ex: lichen planus, mucous patch of secondary syphilis

    “White Lesions”
  3. Define erosion.
    soft tissue lesion in which the epithelium ABOVE the basal cell layer is denuded

    moist and slightly depressed

    result from a broken vesicle, epithelial breakdown, or trauma

    mucocutaneous erosions

    ex. pemphigus, erosive lichen planus, erythema, multiforme
  4. Define ulcer.
    an uncovered wound of cutaneous/mucosal tissue

    exhibits tissue disintegration and necrosis

    ulcers extend deeper than erions BEYOND the basal layer of of epithelium

    ex. apthous stomatitis, infection by viruses (herpes simplex, smallpox, chickenpox and shingles)
  5. Define wheal.
    an edematous papule or plaque resulting from acute extravasation of serum

    only slightly raised

    occur most commonly in persons with allergies

    develops as a result of histamine release from mast cells/complement cascade

    ex. from insect bites, allergy to food, mechanical irritation
  6. Define scar.
    a permanant mark remaining after a wound heals

    infrequently found in oral cavity

    when they occur, an intraoral scar is usually lighter than the adjacent mucose

    histologically more dense than adjacent epithelium

    ex. fibrotic scar tissue from oral surgery, burns, or intraoral trauma
  7. Define fissure.
    normal or abnormal linear cleft in the epidermis

    affects the tongue, lips, and periooral tissues

    variant of normal or disease

    diseased result when pathogenic orgs infect a fissue -- cause pain, ulceration and inflammation

    is a variation of normal associate with dry mouth and dehydration

    ex. angular cheilitis
  8. define sinus.
    has 2 meanings:

    • 1. normal recess or cavity such as the frontal or maxillary sinus
    • 2. an abnormal dilated tract that leads from a suppurative cavity, cyst or abscess to the surface of the epidermis

    ex. actinomycosis
  9. Define papule.
    superficial, elevated, solid lesion <1cm in diameter

    may be attached by a stalk or firm base

    often represents a benign or slow-growing lesion

    ex. sqamous papilloma
  10. Define plaque.
    • a flat, solid, raised area > 1cm in diameter
    • plaques may extend deeper into the dermis than papules
    • edges may be sloped and sometimes surface keratin proliferates

    ex. lichen planus, leukoplakia, or melanoma....
  11. Define nodule.
    • a solid mass of tissue that has the dimension of depth
    • like papules, are <1cm in diameter; however, extend deeper into the dermis
    • asymptomatic or painful and usually are slow growing
    • overylying epidermis is usualy nonfixed
    • ex. benign mesenchymal tumors: fibroma, lipoma...
  12. Define tumor.
    • a solid mass of tissue >1cm in diameter, has dimension of depth.
    • also represent a neoplasm - uncontrolled and progressive multiplication of cells that have no physiologic use
    • benign or malignant
    • benign grow more slowly and ar eless aggressive, do not metatasize, have well-defined margins
    • malignant spread rapidly, comprised of aberran neoplastic cells
    • carcinoma: malignant cancer of epithelial tissue
    • sarcoma: malignant cancer of embryonic connective tissue origin
  13. Define vesicle.
    • circumscribed, fluid-filled elevation in the epidermis <1cm in diameter
    • fluid consists of lymph, serum, blood, or infecitous agents
    • common in viral infections such as herpes simplex, chickenpox
  14. define pustule.
    • circumscribed elevation filled with purulent exudate resulting from an infection <1cm in diameter, may be preceded by vesicel or papule
    • creamy white or yellowish, often associated with an epidermal pore (pimple) represented by a pointing abscess
    • ex. herpex zoster
  15. Define bulla.
    • a vesicle that is >1cm in diameter
    • accumulation of fluid in epidermal-dermis junction of split in epidermis
    • ex. pemphigus, pemphigoid, burns, frictional trauma
  16. Deinfe cyst.
    • an epithelial-lined mass located in the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, or bone
    • result from entrapment of epithelium that grow to produce a cavity
    • range from a few mm to several cm in daimeter
    • ex: gingival cyst, later periodontal cyts
  17. Define crust.
    • dried exudate, excretion or secretion of skin or mucosea
    • rarely are intra-orally
    • often on lips
  18. Define scale.
    • dried epithelium that is superficially located - on the surface
    • rarely occur intra-orally
    • often on lips
    • "epithelial flakes"
  19. Define nevus.
    a birthmark or a mole on the skin, esp. a birthmark in the form of a raised red patch
  20. Define petechiae.
    a small red or purple spot caused by bleeding into the skin
  21. Define purpura.
    a rash of purple spots on the skin caused by internal bleeding from small blood vessels.• [with adj. ] any of a number of diseases characterized by such a rash : psychogenic purpura.