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Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote,
And bathed every veyne in swich licour
Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
These lines were written by_________________
Geoffrey Chaucer is the correct answer. These are the opening lines to Chaucer�s most famous work, The Canterbury Tales.
The dictionary definition of a word is its ____________.
Denotation. The denotation of a word or phrase is what it literally means. This is in contrast to connotation, which is an idea or meaning suggested by or associated with a word or thing. For example, a cigarette ad might have connotations of masculinity, strength, etc.. Connotations are things which are implied or associated, whereas denotations are specific meanings.
____________ is the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables, as in �on scrolls of silver snowy sentences�.
Alliteration. A couple of examples from poetry of alliteration: Behemoth, biggest born of earth, upheaved His vastness. --Milton. Fly o'er waste fens and windy fields. --Tennyson.
The poem Death, be not proud was written by
John Donne is the correct answer. John Donne (1572-1631) was an English poet known for his religious symbolism and elaborate metaphors. Although he spent much of his life renouncing the Catholic faith, he was forced to join the ministry by the King. Ironically, he was such an engaging preacher that he was to be made bishop at the time of his death. Donne�s other poetic works include The Calme, A Hymn to God the Father, Confined Love, and The Good-Morrow.
What is the theme of John Milton�s Paradise Lost?
Expulsion from Eden is the correct answer. Milton set out to write an epic poem to rival the Iliad, recreating the biblical story of the Garden of Eden�with a sympathetic slant on Lucifer. Paradise Lost inspired many later works, including Romantic poet Percy Shelley.
‘Tis not enough no harshness gives offense,
The sound must seem an echo to the sense:
Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently blows,
And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows;
Identify the allusion in the above passage.
“Zephyr” is the correct answer. An allusion is a reference to something from history or literature. In Sound and Sense by Alexander Pope, “Zephyr” alludes to the Roman god of the west wind.
Born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564, he wrote The Rape of Lucrece and Venus and Adonis.
Identify this author.
William Shakespeare is the correct answer. Although both William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe were born in 1564, it was Shakespeare who wrote the epic poems The Rape of Lucrece and Venus and Adonis. Alexandros of Antioch is known for sculpting the Venus de Milo.
Alexander Pope�s An Essay on Criticism introduced which famous phrase?
�A little learning is a dangerous thing.� is the correct answer. Mark Twain is credited with "...never let my schooling...", while "I came, I saw..." was said by Julius Caesar (the original Latin was �Vini, vidi, vinci�). "To be, or not to be..." is from Shakespeare�s Hamlet, while "...one small step..." was the phrase uttered by Neil Armstrong when he first set foot on the moon.
The contrasting poems The Tiger and The Lamb were written by
William Blake is the correct answer. William Blake, known for incorporating his religious visions in his work, penned this famous pair of poems. Blake�s two major poetry compilations are Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience. Of the other answer choices, Ogden Nash wrote The Turtle, while Frost and Dickinson are famous in their own rights. Mary Shelley is the author of Frankenstein.
And fare thee weel, my only luve!
And fare thee weel, a while!
And I will come again, my luve,
Tho it were ten thousand mile!
These lines are the closing stanza to which poem?
O, My Luve is Like a Red Red Rose is the correct answer. O, My Luve is Like a Red Red Rose was written by the famous Scottish poet Robert Burns. He also wrote Auld Lang Syne, To A Mouse, and Tam O�Shanter, among others. The Mill was written by Edwin Arlington Robinson, while The Sick Rose is by William Blake and Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening is by Robert Frost. 10,000 Miles is a song by Mary Chapin Carpenter.
My old man’s a white old man
And my old mother’s black.
If I ever cursed my white old man
I take my curses back.
These lines open the Langston Hughes poem Cross. Identify one of the title’s connotations:
Unpleasant is the correct answer. The other four choices are denotations, or definitions, of the word “cross.” A connotation, on the other hand, is an emotion a word conjures up within the reader.
What is the theme of William Wordsworth�s poem, The world is too much with us?
"Hierarchial view of nature with God at the top and man at the bottom" is the correct answer. Wordsworth discusses the wastefulness and indifference of humans towards the nature that surrounds them. He is known for incorporating the theme of nature into his poetry.
Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,
Old Time is still a-flying;
And this same flower that smiles today
Tomorrow will be dying.
These are the opening lines to which Robert Herrick poem?
"To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time" is the correct answer. You may remember these famous lines from the movie Dead Poet�s Society. The Sick Rose is not by Robert Herrick, but by William Blake. The remaining choices are other selections from Herrick�s extensive collection. Herrick was an English poet born in 1591 who mostly wrote of English countryside and (fictional) women.
The Road Not Taken, The Pasture, and Birches were all written by
Robert Frost is the correct answer. Robert Frost, born in 1874, is arguably one of the most well-known poets in history. Along with the above-mentioned pieces, Frost also wrote Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, Nothing Gold Can Stay, Acquainted with the Night, and Fire and Ice.
I felt a funeral in my brain,
And mourners to and fro
Kept treading�treading�till it seemed
That sense was breaking through.
Which of the following poems was written by the same author as the above lines?
I heard a fly buzz when I died is the correct answer. Emily Dickinson authored both I felt a funeral in my brain and I heard a fly buzz when I died. Dickinson published a mere 10 poems in her life, with the remaining 160 found and published by her sister after Emily�s death. None of her poems were found with titles, so each of her pieces are known by their first line. The Tiger was written by William Blake, while At the round earth�s imagined corners is by John Donne. Home Burial is by Robert Frost, and one of his longest pieces, spanning multiple pages. in Just- is by e.e. cummings, as noted by the characteristic initial lowercase letter.
Wilt thou seal up the avenues of ill?
Pay every debt, as if God wrote the bill.
Identify the simile in Ralph Waldo Emerson�s Suum Cuique.
�as if God wrote the bill� is the correct answer. A simile is an explicit comparison between two things, using the words like or as. A metaphor, on the other hand, is an implicit comparison between two things, as in line 1��the avenues of ill.�
A comparison that uses "like" or "as" is known as a ____________.
Simile. You should be able to distinguish the difference between a simile and a metaphor. A simile uses "like" or "as"; for example:
This homosexual American poet published the collection Leaves of Grass and �sang� Song of Myself.
Walt Whitman is the correct answer. Although every poet listed was an American, it was Walt Whitman who compiled his 300 works over the course of his lifetime into Leaves of Grass. Whitman�s poetry covers almost every subject matter, and is characteristic in its frequent outbursts of thrilled emotion.
Alfred Lord Tennyson authored which of the following poems?
The Eagle is the correct answer. Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) was particularly sensitive to criticism, and the mixed response he received in response to Poems caused him to stop publishing for nine years. Poems ended up being his most successful work. Jack, eating rotten cheese, did say was by Benjamin Franklin, while Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening is one of Robert Frost�s more well-known pieces. Both The Tiger and The Lamb were by William Blake.
A rhyme scheme describes the pattern of rhymes in a poem. What rhyme scheme does the following poem follow? I saw a fairy in the wood, He was dressed all in green. He drew his sword while I just stood, And realized I'd been seen.
abab. This rhyme scheme is simply abab, since "wood" and "stood" are represented in the scheme as "a," while "green" and "seen" are "b." Another example of a rhyme scheme:
Two brothers devised what at sight
Seemed a bicycle crossed with a kite.
They predicted�rash pair!
It would fly through the air!
And what do you know? They were Wright!
What poetic structure is the above
Limerick is the correct answer. A limerick is a fixed form with rhyme scheme aabba, used exclusively for humorous poetry. A Shakespearean sonnet and English sonnet are the same thing, while an octave would require eight lines�this poem is only five. A spoonerism is transposing the initial sounds of two words (as in nixed muts for mixed nuts).
Author of the poems Sailing to Byzantium and The Second Coming, this poet believed that every two thousand years, the current era of humanity would be replaced by its polar opposite. Born in Dublin, this poet's writings were largely Gaelic-influenced.
William Butler Yeats is the correct answer. The remaining answer choices are all American poets. Yeats also wrote When You are Old and To a Child Dancing in the Wind.
That�s my last duchess painted on the wall,
Looking as if she were alive. I call
That piece a wonder, now; Fra Pandolf�s hands
Worked busily a day, and there she stands.
How many grammatical caesuras are in the above lines from Robert Browning�s My Last Duchess?
4 is the correct answer. A caesura is a pause within a line, either grammatical (noted by punctuation) or rhetorical (a natural pause without punctuation). There are a total of four grammatical pauses within the above lines (�alive.� �wonder,� �now;� and �day,�).
This poet wrote The Bell Jar
Sylvia Plath is the correct answer. Many of Sylvia Plath�s later works in Ariel, Crossing the Water, and Winter Trees were dark, macabre pieces alluding to her eventual suicide at age 30, after a long bout with mental illness. Ernest Hemingway was not a poet, and wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls.
What is the proper form of a haiku?
"Three lines, consisting of five, seven, and five syllables, respectively" is the correct answer. Three lines, consisting of seven, five, and seven syllables, respectively, is an incorrect haiku, while five lines with the rhyme scheme aabba makes a limerick. Eight lines of any length compose an octave.
When icicles hang by the wall,
And Dick the shepherd blows his nail,
And Tom bears logs into the hall,
And milk comes frozen home in pail,
When blood is nipped and ways be foul
Then nightly sings the staring owl,
A merry note,
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.
When all aloud the wind doth blow,
And coughing drowns the parson�s saw,
And birds sit brooding in the snow,
And Marian�s nose looks red and raw,
When roasted crabs hiss in the bowl,
A merry note,
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot
Identify the refrain in the above poem..
The correct answer is the set of three lines beginning with "Tu-whit, tu-who!". A refrain is a part of a poem repeated at the same position in each stanza as Shakespeare does with the final three lines of each stanza in Winter. ababccdef is the rhyme scheme of the first stanza.
Identify which of the following is an example of consonance." Repetition of the final consonant sound in a row of words." is the correct answer. Consonance is the inverse of alliteration, or the repetition of the initial consonant sound in a row of words. Repetition of a vowel sound is known as assonance.
Alliteration refers to a repeated consonant at the beginning of the word: The refurbished red roof rocked. Consonance plays with consonants at the end of words: sound beside the wood
The time you won your town the race
We chaired you through the market-place;
Man and boy stood cheering by,
And home we brought you shoulder-high.
These are the opening lines to A.E.
Housman�s To an Athlete Dying Young. In it, Housman ____________ the runner
"apostrophizes" is the correct answer. By writing the poem as if Housman were speaking directly to the athlete, Housman uses apostrophe. Personification entails giving human qualities to a non-human, but in this case, the athlete is a human. The athlete is neither referred to by name or disparaged, and it is impossible to cacophonize a person.
The author of Alice�s Adventures in Wonderland also wrote which famous poem?
Jabberwocky is the correct answer. Lewis Carroll wrote Alice�s Adventures in Wonderland, Jabberwocky, and Through the Looking Glass, although the latter was not a poem. Carroll�s real name was Charles Dodgson, and he was a nineteenth-century English writer. Blackberry Eating is a poem by Galway Kinnell. Where the Wild Things Are is a children�s book by Maurice Sendak, while Where the Sidewalk Ends is children�s poetry by Shel Silverstein.
That God of ours, the Great Geometer,
Does something for us here, where He hath put
(if you want to put it that way) things in shape,
Compressing the little lambs in orderly cubes,
Making the roast a decent cylinder,
Fairing the tin ellipsoid of a ham,
Getting the luncheon meat anonymous
In squares and oblongs with the edges bevelled
Or rounded (streamlined, maybe, for greater speed).
In the above lines from Howard Nemerov�s Grace to Be Said at the Supermarket, God is a metaphor for
Meatpackers is the correct answer. Nemerov satirizes humans for being omnivores (creatures which eat both plants and meat), and indirectly compares meatpackers to God (a metaphor) as they display their packaged meats for sale.
This poet wrote �I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings.�
Maya Angelou is the correct answer. Maya Angelou, an African-American poet, has also written Million Man March Poem, read at the Million Man March, and The Rock Cries Out For Us Today, for President Bill Clinton�s 1993 Inauguration.
Much madness is divinest sense
To a discerning eye,
Much sense, the starkest madness.
‘Tis the majorityIn this, as all, prevail:
Assent, and you are sane;
Demur, you’re straightway dangerous
And handled with a chain.
Identify the paradox in the above poem.
"Insanity is good sense, while good sense is insanity." is the correct answer. A paradox is a seemingly contradictory statement that is, in fact, true. As Emily Dickinson shows in Much madness is divinest sense, madness is sensical, while sense is stark madness. Nowhere does the poem imply that madness is evil.
He clasps the crag with crooked hands;
Close to the sun in lonely lands,
Ringed with the azure world, he stands.
The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;
He watches from his mountain walls,
And like a thunderbolt he falls.
Identify the hyperbole in Alfred Lord Tennyson�s The Eagle.
�Close to the sun� is the correct answer. A hyperbole is an overstatement or gross exaggeration�the eagle is said to be close to the sun, but in reality, he isn�t actually anywhere near the sun. Another example of a hyperbole might be "her hips are a mile wide." The phrase �clasps the crag with crooked� is an example of alliteration, while �like a thunderbolt� is a simile.
What type of poem is In Memoriam by Alfred Lord Tennyson?
Elegy is the correct answer. An elegy is a poem written to commemorate the dead; Tennyson wrote In Memoriam after the death of his good friend Arthur Hallam.
The units of measurement used to measure verse are
Foot, line, stanza. Meter is what is being measured, and is not itself a unit of measurement in verse�for example, a monometer is a piece one foot long. A foot is made up of one accented syllable and one or two unaccented syllables, while a line is fairly self-explanatory. A stanza is a group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated. A hyperbole is an overstatement, not a verse measurement, and Iambic pentameter is the fundamental pattern of an English (or Shakespearean) sonnet.
Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learned, too late, they grieved it on its way
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Ang yo, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
What type of poem is Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night?
Villanelle is the correct answer. Note that this poem, which starts with the famous lines "Do not go gentle into that good night...Rage, rage against the dying of the light." is one of the best known poems by Dylan Thomas. A villanelle, a French poem, takes the following form:
An English sonnet is composed of three ____________ and one _____________.
"quatrains, couplet" is the correct answer. An English sonnet (also known as a Shakespearean sonnet) begins with three quatrains (a quatrain is a stanza containing 4 lines) and concludes with a couplet (two rhyming lines). It follows the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg. An English sonnet is 14 lines long (divided into 4 stanzas), and it has no required number of caesuras, or pauses within a line.
In poetry, a ___________ unit is a set of two or three syllables of which only one is stressed.
Metric. A poem's meter describes how it can be broken up by syllables and accents. The main types are anapestic meter, dactylic meter, iambic meter, and trochaic meter.
Identify the most commonly used English meter.
- Iambic is the correct answer. An Iambic meter is one where the majority of feet are iambs (metrical feet consisting of one unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable). Here are examples of the different meters to help you understand the concept of feet and accents:
- iambic meter -- Meter using a foot of two syllables (known as an iamb), in which the accent falls on the second syllable.
- (the KING | was IN | his COUNT- | ing HOUSE)
- anapestic meter -- Meter using a foot of three syllables (known as an anapest), in which the accent falls on the third syllable.
- (t'was the NIGHT | be- fore CHRIST- | mas when ALL | through the HOUSE) dactylic meter -- Meter using a foot of three syllables (known as a dactyl), in which the accent falls on the first syllable.
- (HEY did- dle | DID- dle the | CAT and the | FID- dle)
- trochaic meter -- Meter using a foot of two syllables (known as a trochee), in which the accent falls on the first syllable.
- (PE- ter | PIP- er | PICKED a | PECK of | PICK- led | PEP- pers)
- Iambic meter is the most commonly used English meter, and it's the fundamental pattern of an English or Shakespearean sonnet.
Nature�s first green is gold,
Her hardest hue to hold.
Her early leaf�s a flower;
But only so an hour.
Then leaf subsides to leaf.
So Eden sank to grief,
So dawn goes down to day.
Nothing gold can stay.
Identify an example of alliteration.
�Her hardest hue to hold� is the correct answer. �Her hardest hue to hold� is an example of alliteration because multiple words start with the same consonant. It's not an answer choice, but "dawn goes down to day" would be another example of alliteration. Define �deus ex machina.� "Resolution of a seemingly hopeless situation" is the correct answer. Literally defined as �god from the machine� from the Latin, it refers to a sudden plot twist, like an army charging over a hill, to resolve an otherwise doomed fate. Identify the trochee from the following. "color" is the correct answer. As you recall earlier from our question about iambic meter, trochaic meter is made up of trochees, which means out of two syllables, the first one is accented. A trochee--for example, "daily"--has one accented syllable (dai) and one unaccented syllable (ly). �The moon� is an example of an iamb (accent on the second out of two syllables); �syllable� is an example of a dactyl (first out of three syllables is accented); and �intervene� of an anapest (last out of three syllables is accented). �Went� is a single accented syllable. This Canadian poet and novelist is best known for the 1984 book, The Handmaid�s Tale. Margaret Atwood is the correct answer. Margaret Atwood also wrote the poems Landcrab, Silent Song, and In the Secular Night, and the book Alias Grace, among many other publications. Dubbed �Medusa� by her critics, much of her work has a distinctive tongue-in-cheek style. Margaret Sanger was a twentieth-century pioneer in making contraception legal and available to women.
Identify the author of the poems Elegy Before Death, Thou art not lovelier than lilacs, The Suicide, and The Little Ghost.
Edna St. Vincent Millay is the correct answer. Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950) is known for her mastery of the sonnet, along with her lively tone. She won a Pullitzer Prize for her work Harp Weaver and Other Poems.
Dante�s Divine Comedy is
"A poem divided into three parts (Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell)" is the correct answer. Dante Alighieri�s Divine Comedy is best known by its three separate parts: Inferno (Hell), Pergatorio (Pergatory), and Paradiso (Heaven). Much Ado About Nothing is by Shakespeare, while the 602-page Divine Comedy is significantly longer than the 14 lines of a Shakespearean sonnet.
Born in 1888, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock was his first successful published poem, and the book of poems it inspired led to his being considered a main player in avant-garde poetry. His most well-known compilation was The Waste Land, published in 1922. Identify this poet.
T.S. Eliot is the correct answer. Donne and Shakespeare were both seventeenth-century poets, so they're definitely not an option. Thoreau and Baudelaire were born in the early 1800s. Eliot was largely influenced by his mentor Ezra Pound, the Imagist poet who helped to open the exchange between English and American poets.
Who authored Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night?
Dylan Thomas is the correct answer. Thomas wrote this famous poem about fighting against death (�the dying of the light�). He was greatly influenced by the writings of D.H. Lawrence, and made popular the idea of poetry readings with his American tours.
I went to the woods because I wanted to live deliberately. I went to live deeply and suck out all the marrow of life! To put to rest all that was not life and not when I came to die discover that I had not lived.
Henry David Thoreau is the correct answer. Thoreau, known for his works On Civil Disobedience and On Walden Pond, actually gave up his initial attempts at poetry, feeling it was too confining. Today, his poems are considered some of his best contributions. Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson were close friends, sharing membership in the Transcendentalist Club. While Robert Frost wrote many poems on nature, this is a Thoreau poem, not Frost.
Italian sonnets are also known as _____________ sonnets.
Petrarchan is the correct answer. Italian sonnets are also called Petrarchan sonnets because the Italian poet Petrarch used them so extensively. These sonnets differ from English (or Shakespearean) sonnets. Although Italian sonnets begin with an octave, they are not referred to as such.
"Using a related item to refer to an item itself." is the correct answer. Metonymy is defined as a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of the sword for military power. Giving a non-human item human characteristics is known as personification, while using a part to refer to a whole is called synecdoche.
"The stairs complained loudly as we walked down them, creaking and groaning with every step" shows an example of _______________.
Personification. Personification is giving a non-human item human characteristics. In this case, the stairs complained and groaned, which are things humans do.
______________ poetry is written in order to instill knowledge or values in the reader.
Didactic. Although most poems leave some feeling or message with the reader, pieces composed expressly for the purpose of instilling knowledge or values fall under the category of didactic poetry.
�So smooth, so sweet, so silvery is thy voice�
- The opening line to Robert Herrick�s Upon Julia�s Voice deliberately uses certain pleasing consonant combinations, or ______________, to express the appeal of the subject�s voice.
- Euphony. Smooth sounding letters, including l, m, n, and r, are often used to express a soft, gentle tone. In contrast, letters that produce a harsh sound (cacophony) can help illustrate an unpleasant situation.
Husband of the author of Frankenstein, ______________ wrote the poem Ozymandias.
Percy Shelley. Expelled in 1811 from Oxford University for his pamphlet The Necessity of Atheism, Percy wed Mary Shelley, the future author of Frankenstein, in 1814, when she was just sixteen. Incredibly, Mary wrote Frankenstein when she was eighteen, shortly after the birth of their first child. Percy was lost at sea four years later
Dante�s Divine Comedy, at almost 900 pages, and Homer�s The Iliad, at close to 700 pages, are examples of ________ poems.
Epic. Though there is no set length to differentiate an epic poem from a non-epic, these works by Dante and Homer are two of the most well-known established epic selections. Other works that are widely regarded as epics include John Milton�s Paradise Lost and The Odyssey, also by Homer
A(n) ___________ is a stanza made up of three lines.
Tercet. Stanzas can also be couplets (two lines), quatrains (four lines), quintains or cinquains (five lines), or sestets (six lines). Adam Had �em. The above�-Lines on the Antiquity of Microbes by Strickland Gillilan�-is one of the shortest examples of a(n) ___________ tha Couplet. Also known as a distich, a couplet is made up of two lines that match in length, in rhyme, or both.t forms a complete poem.
�Through� and �trough� are an example of a(n) ______ rhyme.
Eye. Although the two words look like rhymes, they make distinctly different end sounds. They are sometime referred to as sight rhymes.
An unrhymed poem written in iambic pentameter is known as ________ _______.
Blank verse. Occasionally, you will find an example of blank verse not written in iambic pentameter. Just a refresher--iambic pentameter is an unrhymed line with five iambs or feet, often considered to be the most powerful of all metrical forms in English poetry. Note the following two lines in iambic pentameter from Christopher Marlowe's Dr Faustus:
�To be, or not to be--that is the question� begins Hamlet�s famous _____________.
Soliloquy. A soliloquy is where a character talks to himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a listener. Hamlet says these lines to himself, not another character, in order to reveal his thoughts to the reader.
The way Margaret Atwood, in her poem This Is A Photograph of Me, casually mentions that she had drowned the day before the photograph was taken�a detail which the reader could easily miss�is called a(n) __________.
Aside. Outside of poetry, an aside can also be words spoken on stage out of earshot of the other players. In general, an aside is a digression that offers the audience additional insight or clarification.
A Transcendentalist and close friend of Henry David Thoreau, _______________ wrote such poems as Nature and The Snowstorm.
Ralph Waldo Emerson. An esteemed orator and philosopher in nineteenth-century America, Emerson greatly influenced the future of American literature, poetry, and thought. One of the biggest distinguishing facts about Emerson was that he believed in transcendentalism.
The poet _____________ is known for his characteristic use of only lowercase letters.
e.e. cummings. With even his name devoid of capital letters, Edward Estlin Cummings wrote grammatically eccentric poems, many of which centered around his time in a French prison during World War I.
___________ eloped with her husband Robert, also a well-known poet, a few years before publishing her collection of love poems, Sonnets from the Portuguese. One of her most famous poems starts with "How do I love thee? Let me count the ways...", which is also the title of the poem.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning. She first began writing poetry in 1821, after seriously injuring her back, and was almost a complete invalid by 1838�-until a heartfelt exchange of love letters between her and Robert Browning began. Elizabeth named her publication Sonnets from the Portuguese because Robert affectionately referred to her as �my little Portuguese,� in reference to her dark skin color.
The ____________ of �Save the whales� is �Wave the sales.�
Spoonerism. When the initial consonant sounds of two words are inadvertently switched, forming a new phrase, it is known as a spoonerism.
Though not a recognized poet during his life (1844-1889), ____________ was recognized as an esteemed poet after his death for such works as The Wreck of the Deutschland and The Caged Skylark.
Gerard Manley Hopkins. Other poems by Hopkins include Heaven-Heaven, Pied Beauty, and God�s Grandeur.
A jazz critic on the side, ____________ was considered one of the most original poets of the late twentieth-century, with works including The North Ship, The Whitsun Weddings, and High Windows.
Philip Larkin. His poems were full of deadly wit, and exposed the less savory aspects of English life. Though not widely published, he fast became one of the best-known and most-respected poets of his time.
____________ turned to poetry in search of a greater means of expression, after a scandal erupted over his novel Jude the Obscure regarding his openness about free sexual relations between the sexes.
Thomas Hardy. A nineteenth-century English writer, he abandoned fiction writing altogether after Jude the Obscure and wrote only poetry�including A Study of Reading Habits, Church Going, and Toads. The majority of his poems revolve around the theme of man fighting against supernatural forces.
In Edwin Arlington Robinson�s Richard Cory, the fact that Richard, a successful and revered businessman, commits suicide is an example of ______________ irony.
Situational. When the outcome completely differs from what one expects to happen, it is known as situational irony.
In William Blake�s The Chimney Sweeper, the young chimney-sweep constantly looks at the brighter side of the situation, assuring his newly-bald friend that the shave will prevent his beautiful blonde hair from being dirtied, and that �if all do their duty they need not fear harm.� However, the life of a chimney-sweep during that time was far from pleasant�-young boys were forced to work long hours in awful conditions, and often developed deformities and deadly diseases. This contrast is known as ___________ irony.
Dramatic. This type of irony describes a situation where the speaker�s words and the poem�s meaning contradict one another.
Alexander Pope�s Essay on Criticism is a ____________ poem outlining his position on whether poetry should be written strictly and according to established guidelines, or freely.
Didactic. Didactic poetry like Pope�s piece is written with the intention to teach the reader something new, or expose them to a new viewpoint.
Old Eben Flood, climbing alone one night
Over the hill between the town below
And the forsaken upland hermitage
That held as much as he should ever know
On earth again of home, paused warily.
The road was his with not a native near;
And Eben, having leisure, said aloud,
For no man else in Tilbury Town to hear:
Due to its number of lines, this excerpt is a(n) ___________.
Octave. This stanza from Edwin Arlington Robinson�s Mr. Flood�s Party has eight lines, making it an octave.
A close friend of Percy Shelley, poet ______________ was eventually ostracized from society after discovered to be having sexual affairs with both his sister and fellow men. Considered one of the greatest Romantic poets, he wrote English Bards and Scotch Reviewers, The Dream, and Don Juan.
Lord Byron. Rising from an impoverished childhood and a perpetual fear of being perceived as lame, Lord Byron skyrocketed to fame after English Bards and Scotch Reviewers, a satire of the Pope, was published�-although his wife�s discovery of his infidelity quickly brought him back down to earth. Rumors of Byron having an incestuous relationship with his half-sister resulted in him leaving England.
A poem free of conventions is _______ _________.
Free verse. Though still poetry, free verse does not follow a prescribed pattern and allows the author more freedom when composing.
_____________ wrote Those Winter Sundays, about a son finally recognizing all of the little things his father did for him out of love:
Sundays too my father got up early
and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,
then with cracked hands that ached
from labor in the weekday weather made
banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him.
I'd wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking.
When the rooms were warm, he'd call,
and slowly I would rise and dress,
fearing the chronic angers of that house,
speaking indifferently to him,
who had driven out the cold
and polished my good shoes as well.
What did I know, what did I know
of love's austere and lonely offices?
Robert Hayden. An American poet born in Detroit, his work shows a considerable talent for irony. He wrote The Whipping, Those Winter Sundays, and Ballad of Remembrance. Ballad of Remembrance garnered the grand prize at the 1966 World Festival of the Negro Arts.