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Array of therapy methods based on the principles of behavioral and cognitive science as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaiors rather than inferred conflict as legitimate targets for change.
Rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy
Conditioned response (CR)
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Unconditioned response (UCR)
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
CR: Learned reaction, similar to the unconditioned response, that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus following classical conditioning
CS: Environmental event that acquires the ability to elicit a learned response as a result of classical conditioning associated with an unconditioned stimulus
UCR: In classical conditioning, the natural or unlearned reaction to the unconditioned stimulus
UCS: Environmental event that would elicit a response in almost anyone and requires no learning. In classical conditioning, it is paired with a neutral stimulus that, after training, may become a conditioned stimulus
Therapists project some of their own personal issues and feelings, usually positive, onto the patient.
- -Denial: Refusal to perceive or face an unpleasant reality
- -Repression: Blocking the awareness of threatening impulses, ideas, or feelings
- -Projection: Seeing in and accusing others of the weaknesses one actually fears about oneself
- -Intellectualization: Isolating oneself from feelings by excessive focus on abstractions
- -Rationalization: Explaining away unpleasant feelings or unworthy motives
- -Reaction Formation: Adopting seemingly opposite behavior as a way of denying real impulses
- -Displacement: Discharging anger or other unpleasant feelings on a safer object than the one to which the feeling are actually directed
Type of thinking
: Illogical, emotional irrational
- Ego: Logical, rational
- Superego: Conscience
: Pleasure principle
- Ego: Reality principle
- Superego: Moral principle
OC: occurring for males during the phallic stage. In essence, the little boy, in loving his mother and having an emerging sense of sexuality, desires to possess the mother more fully, but fears the powerful father. He experiences this fear in particular as "castration anxiety" (fear of losing that which makes him uniquely male). The child typically "resolves" this complex by postponing his possession of the mother and identifying with the father (becoming like him) in an effort to increase his chances. Through this process he learns to transfer his love to other women, but retains a loving, less-sexual attraction to his mother.
EC: Female version of OC
Developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several different causes
In psychoanalysis, stopping or concentrating at a psychosexual stage because of a lack of appropriate gratification at that stage.
Psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to sxplore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring.
Hierarchy of needs
Ranking of human necessities from basic food to self-actualization, proposed by Abraham Marlow.
In psychoanalysis, the struggles among the id, ego and superego
Law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors are strengthened or weakened by the environmental events that follow them.
Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether in reality they do or not)
Learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and the consequences of that behavior
Negative cognitive triad
negative beliefs about, oneself, the world, the future
Therapy method in which the client, rather than the counselor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self discovery and self-responsibility
- Oral: First 2 years of life. Focus is on the mouth; the infant's greatest source of gratification is sucking. The prototype task (suckling) teaches us about meeting our needs.
- Anal: Ages 2-3. Focus is the anus; toilet training and urges for both retention and elimination are fundamental. The prototype task teaches us about self-control and how our behavior can affect us and others.
- Phallic: Ages 3 to 5 or 6. Self-manipulation of the genitals provides the major source of pleasure sensation. The prototype task (understanding gender and our place in it) is the beginnings of identity formation.
- Latency: Ages 6 to 12. Sexual motivations recede as the child is preoccupied with developing skills and friendships and with other activities. Freud cared less about social development, but conceded that during this period social connections extend beyond the primary providers, further
- developing identity and interpersonal skills.
- Genital: During and after puberty. The deepest feelings of pleasure come from heterosexual relations.
A positive consequence that encourages engaging in the response that seems to have elicited it.
Primary Reinforcement: A consequence that has natural reinforcing properties (e.g., food).
- Secondary Reinforcement: A consequence that has acquired reinforcing properties, usually because it has been linked to other reinforcers (e.g., money).
- Positive Reinforcement: A positive consequence is applied, thereby increasing the likelihood of the eliciting behavior.
- Negative Reinforcement: A noxious condition is removed, thereby increasing the likelihood of the eliciting behavior.
- Punishment: A negative consequence is applied, thereby decreasing the likelihood of the eliciting behavior.
Schedules of Reinforcement
The regularity with which behaviors elicit a particular reinforcement; they can be continuous or intermittent. Intermittent reinforcement can be random or nonrandom, and the rate of reinforcement can be based on the elapsed time since last reinforcement (interval) or on the number of behaviors (ratio). Reinforcement that elicits the highest rate of responding tends to be intermittent, especially if on a random, ratio schedule.
Unconditional positive regard
Acceptance by the counselor of the client's feelings and actions without judgement or condemnation
Sigmund Freud's major contributions
- Freud provided much of the impetus for modern psychological theories of thought and behavior. He postulated the first systematic, formalized modern theory of how human psychological processes can result in mental disorders. He developed techniques (such as free association and dream analysis) for becoming acquainted with both the conscious and unconscious aspects of mental life. He demonstrated that certain abnormal mental phenomena occur as attempts to cope with difficult problems and are exaggerations of normal mechanisms. Even so,much of what he did has always been controversial, and most modern theories are dramatically different from his. Nevertheless, a number ofhis contributions have greatly influenced modern thinking. For example, here are three of his contributions that are widely respected and incorporated into many modern theories:
- 1. He emphasized the importance of unconscious processes, recognizing that much of our mental activity occurs out of awareness.
2. He emphasized the importance of early development, that the experiences of the formative years are powerful and long lasting.
3. He proposed that defensive mechanisms are powerful ways of protecting aspects of the self, but in exaggerated form can be maladaptive.
NeoFreudians and Points of Contention
Some psychologists and psychiatrists follow Freud's general focus on a dynamic, largely unconscious, inner self that drives feeling and behavior, often in symbolic ways. However, many felt Freud's theory was incorrect in some ways or did not emphasize certain features sufficiently. Early followers of Freud who broke from him over such issues became known as NeoFreudians. Some distinctions between Freud and the NeoFreudians include:
- -Instead of focusing on the unconscious id, some NeoFreudians (e.g., Heinz Hartmann and Anna Freud), referring to their area as ego psychology, focused on how the ego performs its central functions as the "executive" of personality.
- -Some had a focus on the internal processes in which the child symbolically incorporates into the self, through images and memories, some person viewed with strong emotion. This perspective is called object-relations (e.g., Melanie Klein, Margaret Mahler, and Otto Kernberg). -Some felt Freud focused excessively on the inner life and on the sex drive, ignoring many aspects of interpersonal functioning. These theorists
- (e.g., Alfred Adler, Erich Fromm, and Harry Stack Sullivan) emphasized interpersonal relationships, and how early relationships affect a person's ability to form fulfilling adult relationships.
Most common criticisms of Freud
- -Failure to recognize the scientific limits of personal reports of experience as the primary mode of obtaining information
- -Lack of scientific evidence to support many of its explanatory assumptions or the effectiveness of its therapy
- -Overemphasis on the sex drive
- -Undue pessimism about basic human nature
- -Exaggerated role of unconscious processes
- -Failure to consider the motives toward personal growth and fulfillment
- -Neglect of the role of cultural differences in shaping behavior
- -Lengthy and expensive treatment