anatomy

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asngrant6
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9158
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anatomy
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2010-03-04 21:16:05
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muscles
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  1. ______, a chart of the timing and strength of the muscle's contraction
    myogram
  2. By gradually increasing the voltage and stimulating the muscle again, we can determine the _____, or minimum voltage necesary to generate an action potential in the muscle fiber and produce a contraction
    threshold
  3. at threshold or higher, a stimulus thus causes a quick cycle of contraction and relaxation called a ______
    twitch
  4. there is a delay, or ______, of about 2 million seconds (msec) between the onset of the stimulus and the onset of the twitch
    latent period
  5. Once the the elastic components are taut, the muscle begins to produce external tension and move a resisting object, or load. This is called the ______ phase of the twitch.
    contraction
  6. As the Ca2+ level in the cytoplasm falls, myosin releases the thin filaments and muscle tension declines. This is seen in the myogram as the ______ phase
    relaxation
  7. The process of bringing more motor units into play is called _____
    recruitment
  8. ________ is the result from two stimuli arriving close together
    temporal summation
  9. _______ is the result from one wave of contraction added to another
    wave summation
  10. Your muscles are contracting at a cellular level, but their tension is being absorbed by the elastic components and is resisted by the weight of the load; the muscle as a whole is not producing any external movement. this phase is called __________, contraction without a change in length
    isometric contraction
  11. ________ contraction with a change in length but no change in tension-begins when internal tension builds to the point that it overcomes the resistance
    isotonic
  12. In _______ contraction, a muscle shortens as it maintains tensionC
    Concentric
  13. _______ contraction, a muscle lengthens as it maintains tension
    eccentric
  14. The pathway from glycogen to lactic acid, called the ________ system, produces enough ATP for 30 to 40 seconds of maximum activity
    glycogen-lactic acid
  15. Muscle _____ is the progressive weakness and loss of contractility that results from prolonged use of the muscles
    fatigue
  16. The ability to maintain high-intensity excercise for more than 4 to 5 minutes is determined in large part by one's _______, the point at which the rate of oxygen consumption reaches a plateau and does not increase further with an added workload
    maximum oxygen uptake
  17. _______is the difference between the resting rate of oxygen consumption and the elevated rate following an excercise
    oxygen debt
  18. ______ excercise, such as weight lifting, is the contraction of muscles against a load that resists movement
    resistance
  19. _________ excercise, such as jogging and swimming, improves the fatigue resistance of the muscles
    Endurance (aerobic)
  20. Any of the three types of muscle cells can be called __________
    myocytes
  21. Each myocyte is joined to several others at its ends through linkages called ______
    intercalated discs
  22. Cardiac muscle contains a built in _____ that rhythmically sets off a wave of electrical excitation
    pacemaker
  23. Cardiac muscle is said to be ________ because of this ability to contract rhythmically and independently
  24. ____ muscle is composed of myocytes with a fusiform shape, about 30 to 200 m long, 5 to 10 m wide at the middle, and tapering to a point at each end
    smooth
  25. Cardiac myocytes are also called __________
    Cardiocytes
  26. _________ smooth muscle occurs in some of the largest arteries and pulmonary air passages, in the piloerector muscles of the hair follicles, and in the iris of the eye
    multiunit
  27. _______ smooth muscle is more widespread. It occurs in most blood vessels and in the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts---thus, it is also called _______ muscle
    • Single-unit
    • visceral
  28. in single-unit smooth muscle, each autonomic nerve fiber has up to 20,000 beadlike swellings called _____ along its length
    varicoisities
  29. Such nerve muscle relationships are called _____ junctions because there is no one to one relationship between a nerve fiber and a myocyte
    Diffuse
  30. Smooth muscle has not troponin. Calcium binds instead to a similar protein called ______, associated with the thick filaments. Calmodulin then activates an enzyme called ______ kinase, which adds a phosphate group to a small regulatory protein on the myosin head
    • calmodulin
    • myosin light-chain
  31. Distension of the esophagus with food or the colon with feces, for examples, evokes a wave of contraction called ______ that propels the contents along the organ
    peristalsis
  32. Smooth muscle exhibits a reaction called the ________ response
    stress relaxation
  33. smooth muscle also exhibits ______--- the ability to adjust its tension to the degree of stretch
    plasticity
  34. _________ is painful spasms triggered by heavy excercise, extreme cold, dehydration, electrolyte loss, low blood glucose, or lack of blood flow
    cramps
  35. ________ is a collective term for several hereditary diseases in which the muscles degenerate, weaken, and are gradually replaced by fat and fibrous scar tissue
    Muscular dystrophy
  36. The most common form of muscular dystrophy is _______, a sex linked recessive trait affecting about 1 out of every 3,500 live born boys
    duchenne
  37. _______ usually occurs in women between the ages of 20 and 40. It is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the neuromuscular junctions and bind ACh receptors together in clusters
    Myasthenia gravis
  38. A less severe of muscular dystrophy is _________ MD, and autosomal dominant trait that begins in adolescense and affects both sexes equally
    facioscapulo humeral
  39. Muscular tissuse has the properties of:
    • responsiveness
    • conductivity
    • contractility
    • extensibility
    • elasticity
  40. The muscular system consists of the skeletal muscles. The study of this system is called ______
    myology
  41. The muscular system serves for:
    • body movements
    • stability
    • communication
    • control of body openings and passages
    • heat production
  42. Each skeletal muscle fiber (cell) is enclosed in a fibrous _______
    endomysium
  43. A ______ is a bundle of muscle fibers enclosed in a fibrous _____
    • Fascicle
    • perimysium
  44. Connective tissue ______ seperate muscles from each other and from the skin
    fasciae
  45. Muscles are classified according to the orientation of their fascicles as:
    • fusiform
    • parallel
    • triangular
    • pennate
    • circular
  46. Circular muscles are also called ______
    sphincters
  47. A muscle may have an ______ attachment in which a tendon intervenes between the muscle and bone or a ______ attachment in which the muscle fibers reach all the way to the bone
    • indirect
    • direct
  48. A mucsle typically has a stationary _____ (head) on one bone, a mobile _____ on another bone, and a thicker _____ between the origin and insertion
    • origin
    • insertion
    • belly
  49. The ____ of a muscle is either the motion it produces or its role in preventing an unwanted motion
    action
  50. In a given joint action, the ____ produces most of the force
    prime mover
  51. A ____ aids the prime mover or modifies its action, an ______ opposes that action
    • synergist
    • antagonist
  52. A ____ prevents a bone from moving
    fixator
  53. ____ muscles are entirely contained in a region of study such as the head or hand
    intrinsic
  54. ______ muscles have their origin in a region other than the site of their action, such as forearm muscles that move the fingers
    extrinsic
  55. Muscles are innvervated by what nerves?
    • spinal
    • cranial
  56. Muscle names usually in Latin, usually refer to their:
    • size
    • shape
    • location
    • number of heads
    • orientation
    • action
  57. the ____ and ____ move the scalp, eyebrows, and forehead
    • Frontalis
    • Occipitalis
  58. THe eyelid and other tissues around the eye are moved by the ______ oculi, ______ superioris, and ________ superioris
    • orbicularis
    • levator palpebrae
    • corrugator
  59. The _____ muscle flares and compresses the nostrils
    nasalis
  60. The ______ muscles act upon the cheeks
    buccinator
  61. the ____ acts upon the mandible and the skin of the neck
    platysma
  62. The tongue is controlled by a set of unnamed intrinsic muscles and several extrinsic muscles:
    • genioglossus
    • hypoglossus
    • styloglossus
    • palatoglossus
  63. Biting and chewing are achieved by the actions of the:
    • temporalis
    • masseter
    • medial pterygoid
    • lateral pterygoid
  64. Four muscles are associated with the hyoid bone and located superior to it, and thus are called the suprahyoid group:
    • digastric
    • geniohyoid
    • mylohyoid
    • stylohyoid
  65. Another four muscles associated with the hyoid bone are inferior to it and therefore called the infrahyoid group:
    • omohyoid
    • sternohyoid
    • thyrohyoid
    • sternothyroid
  66. The _____, ______, ______ pharynegeal constrictors contract in squence to force food down and into the esphagus
    • superior
    • middle
    • inferior
  67. The _____, ______ capitis, ______ capitis are the major extensors of the neck
    • trapezius
    • splenius
    • semispinalis
  68. The abdominal wall is supported by the sheetlike _________ abdominal oblique, _________ abdominal oblique, and ___________ abdominal muscles, and by the _______ abdominal
    • external
    • internal
    • transverse
    • rectus
  69. The deep back muscles include the _______, ________, and _______
    • semispinali thoracis
    • quadratus lumborum
    • multifidus
  70. The anal canal, urethra, and vagina penetrate the pelvic floor muscles and open into the _____, a diamond shaped space between the thighs bordered by the _____, _____, and ______
    • perineum
    • pubic symphsis
    • coccyx
    • ischial tuberosities
  71. The anterior half of the perineum is the _____ triangle, and the posterior half is the ______ triangle
    • urogenital
    • anal
  72. The most superficial compartment of the pelvic floor is the _____ space. It contains two major muscles:
    • superficial perineal
    • ischiocavernosus
    • bulbospongiosus
  73. The middle compartment of the pelvic floor contains the external ______ sphincter and external _______ sphincter, and in females, the _______ urethrae
    • urethral
    • anal
    • compressor
  74. The deepest compartment of the pelvic floor is the ______. It consists of two muscles:
    • pelvic diaphragm
    • levator ani
    • coccygeus
  75. Most tendons of the forearm muscles pass under a _____ on the anterior side of the wrist or an ______ on the posterior side of the wrist
    • flexor retinaculum
    • extensor retinaculum
  76. The space between the flexor retinaculum and carpal bones is called the ______
    carpal tunnel
  77. Anterior compartment muscles are mainly flexors of the _____ and _____
    • wrist
    • hand
  78. Superficial muscles of the anterior compartment include the ______ and ________ which form the two most prominent tendons of the anterior wrist and them _____ and ______
    • palmaris longus
    • flexor carpi radialis
    • flexor carpi ulnaris
    • flexor digitorum superficialis
  79. The deep muscles of the anterior compartment include the ______ profundus and ______ longus
    • flexor digitorum
    • flexor pollicis
  80. Superficial muscles of the posterior compartment include the extensor carpi radialis ______, extensor carpi radialis _____, extensor ______, extensor digiti _____, and extensor carpi ________
    • longus
    • brevis
    • digitorum
    • minimi
    • ulnaris
  81. Deep muscles of the posterior compartment include the ______ pollicis longus, ______ pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis ______ and extensor _____
    • abductor
    • extensor
    • longus
    • indicis
  82. Intrinsic muscles are divided into three groups:
    • thenar
    • hypothenar
    • midpalmar
  83. _____ group of muscles form the thick fleshy mass at the base of the thumb and the web between the thumb and palm
    thenar
  84. The thenar group includes the ____ pollicis, ______ pollicis brevis, _____ pollicis brevis, and ______ pollicis
    • adductor
    • abductor
    • flexor
    • opponens
  85. The ______ group muscles form the fleshy _______ at the base of the little finger, and are concerned with movements of that digit
    • hypothenar
    • hypothenar eminence
  86. The hypothenar group include the ____ digiti minimi, ______ digiti minimi brevis, and _____ digiti minimi
    • abductor
    • flexor
    • opponens
  87. The _____ group of muscles span the palm
    midpalmar
  88. Most muscles that act on the femur originate on the ____ bone. The two major anterior muscles of this group are the _____ and the _____ major, collectively called the _____
    • hip
    • iliacus
    • psoas
    • iliopsoas
  89. Superficial muscles on the lateral and posterior sides of the hip include the:
    • tensor fasciae latae
    • gluteus maximus
    • gluteus medius
    • gluteus minimus
  90. ______ nerves arise from the spinal cord, emerge through the intervertebral foramina, and innervate muscles below the neck
    Spinal
  91. ______ nerves arise from the base of the brain, emerge through the skull foramina, and innervate muscles of the head and neck
    Cranial
  92. The ____ of a muscle refers to the identity of the nerve that stimulates it
    innervation

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