ISO

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Jbrand
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91616
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ISO
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2011-06-22 11:46:22
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ISO
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ISO
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  1. 
    • author "me"
    • tags " Chapter 6 and 7"
    • description "ISO"
    • fileName "ISO"
    • Buildings must be built to resist the forces of
    • Wind, snow, rain, and gravity
  2. Wind, snow, rain, and gravity create ___.
    Building loading
  3. Loads are imposed on
    Building materials
  4. (Loads) This imposition causes ____ on materials-called ___
    Stress,force
  5. The direction or application of a load to a component is the ___ of the load
    Imposition
  6. ___ types of loads can be transmitted through a structural member. They are:
    • 3
    • Axial(compression), eccentric(tension), torsion(shear) can occir in both directions
  7. Loads are applied to a structural member as :
    Compresion,tension,shear
  8. Advanced material technologies have found there way into structural elements. Buildings are being assembled using :
    Plastics, graghites, wood derivatives, and other composites
  9. 4 basic material types:
    Wood, steal, concrete, and masonary
  10. Wood has ___ resistance to forces compared to it's weight, but does the job for most
    • Marginal,
    • residential, and small comercial buildings
  11. Steal is a mixture of __ and __ into structural shapes to form elements for buildings
    Carbon and iron ore heated and rolled
  12. Steal has excellent__ strengths
    Tensile, shear, and compressive
  13. Steal is a popular choice for:
    Girders, lintels, cantilevered beams, and columns.
  14. Steel has __ ; that it is easy to ___
    • High factory control
    • Change its shape, increase its strength, and manipulate during production
  15. The specific range of temperature that at which steel loses it's strength depends on :
    How it was manufactured
  16. Cold drawn steel, like ___, loses _% of it's strength at _
    55% -- 800° F
  17. Extruded steel used for __ lose __% of it's strength at __
    50%, 1100°F
  18. At __ a 100' long beam can elongate __
    • 1,000°
    • 10"
  19. Steel __ when heated
    Softens, elogates, and sags
  20. Concrete is a mixture of:
    Portland cement, sand, gravel, and water
  21. Concrete has excellent __ strength when __
    • Compressive
    • Cured
  22. The curing process creates __ that bonds the mixture to achieve __
    • A chemical reaction
    • Strength
  23. The final strength of concrete depends on:
    Ratio of materials especially water to portland cement
  24. Concrete has poor:
    Tesile and shear strength
  25. Reinforcing steal that becomes exposed to a fire can transmit heat within the concrete, causing :
    Catastropic spalling and failure of the structral element
  26. A __ force that exceeds the __ forces within a masonry wall cause:
    • Lateral
    • Compressive
    • Its quik collapse
  27. COMPOSITES:
    of particular interest are the many __ that are widely used for structural elements
    Wood
  28. Emulsified glue :
    OSB
  29. The OSB and LVL I- beam is ___ a solid wood joist. It __ when heated.
    • Stronger than
    • Fails quickly
  30. FiRP can be mixed with wood to give it __ with __
    • incredible tensile strength
    • Little mass
  31. Structural elements, defined simply as:
    Columns, beams, and connections used to assemble a building
  32. To predict collapse the iso must ___ structural elements to determine___
    If they can still transfer the load as desiged
  33. Beams are used to create a___. Beams are subjected to the imposed load of____.
    • Covered space
    • Itself and anything placed on it
  34. Lintel:
    Spans an opening in a load-bearing masonary wall, such as over a garage door opening (often called a header)
  35. Girder
    Supports other beams
  36. __-"Fake" beam because it __.
    • Truss
    • Uses geometric shapes, light weight materials, and assembly components to transfer loads just like a beam.
  37. Types of connections
    Pined, ridgid, gravity
  38. The general classification of construction methods helps the fire officer understand the __.
    Materials, methods, and components present in a structure
  39. Type II construction
    Structural elements do not qualify for type I construction
  40. Has many void spaces which fire can spread undetected
    Ordinary construction
  41. Fires can spread from store to store through wall openings and shared ceiling and roof-support spaces
    Non combustable
  42. Common problems associated with this type of construction are void spaces allowing for rapid fire extension and collapse of lightweight structural elements.
    Type III ordinary
  43. A masonry wall requires __ from __ to make it sound.
    • Compressive weight
    • Floorsand roofs
  44. In the early 19_'s, builders started using ___ framing
    • 50
    • Platform
  45. __ become a significant collapse threat, especially in newer buildings.
    Fire and heat that penetrate wall, floor, or attic spaces
  46. The biggest collapse threat to new lightweight steel homes is___- expect __, and
    • Fire in an unfinnished basement
    • Rapid collapse
    • General collapse of flooring into the basement.
  47. lightweight steel homes:
    __ will likely sag before collapse as it is __ and uses __ to help add rigidity
    • Roof structure
    • Pinned together
    • Steel perlins
  48. ICF buildings use ___ to form a concrete mold for walls.
    (EPS) Expanded polystyrene
  49. ICF
    concrete is poured into small cylinder cavities to give:
    The wall compresive strength for the roof
  50. A construction method that uses panels made from OSB and EPS for load bearing walls and roofs
    SIP-wall
  51. SIP-walls are typically __ thick
    6"- 8"
  52. Failure of the wall panel causes instability in the roof structure.
    SIP
  53. Expect rapid structural failure of these buildings during fires
    SIP
  54. If the building does not fit a classic type or is of multiple types, simply call it
    A hybrid
  55. Determining whether a fire is a contents or structure fire is
    imperative
  56. 5 step process for predicting collapse?
    • 1. Classify the construction type
    • 2. Determine structural envolement
    • 3. Visualize and tra e loads
    • 4. Evaluate time
    • 5. Predict and communicate collapse potetial
  57. Dark gray or black smoke venting under pressure from structural seams, ridge boards, eaves, and attic vents is a indicator...
    That heat and likely fire are present in that space.
  58. This step in the 5 step process for predicting collapse is more an art form
    Step 3 visualizing and tracing loads
  59. Weak links that lead to collapse (7)
    Connections, overloading, occupancy switch, trusses, void spaces, stairs, parapet walls
  60. Each type of building construction has it's own weak link; this is why __ are so valuable.
    Study of building construction text and site visits
  61. In some cases the connection relies on __ to hold it in place ; a ___ may cause the connection to fail
    • Gravity and an axel load
    • Shift or lateral load
  62. Excessive __ loads place stress on building components, which are vulnerable to early collapse when__
    • Live and dead
    • attacked by fire
  63. __ usually hold together trusses
    Guset plates
  64. Trusses are used in
    Roof, floor, and mezzanine assemblies
  65. Voids are numerous in type...
    Type III ordinary construction
  66. Parapets are typically made of...
    Masonary materials
  67. A collapse zone consists of the areas that are exposed to
    Trauma, debris, and/or thrust should a building or part of a building collapse
  68. With new truss systems, interior floors can ___, yet the walls and roof remain -____.
    • Collapse into the basement
    • A general collapse
  69. Observations that make collapse likelihood obvious:
    • 1. DETERIORATION OF MORTOR JOINTS AND MASONRY
    • 2. SIGNS OF BUILDING REPAIR (SPREADERS)
    • 3. BULGES AND BOWING WALLS
    • 4. SAGGING FLOORS
    • 5. ABANDONED BUILDINGS
    • 6. LARGE VOLUME OF FIRE IMPINGING ON STRUCTURE
    • 7. MULTIPLE FIRE IN THE SAME BUILDING, OR PREVIOUS FIRE DAMAGE
  70. The best approach for firefighters when responding to fires in buildings under construction is to...
    Be defensive
  71. SMOKE CAN BE BEST DEFINED AS
    THE PRODUCT OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION THAT INCLUDES AN AGGREGATE OF SOLIDS, AEROSOLS, AND FIRE GASES THAT ARE TOXIC, FLAMMABLE, AND VOLATILE
  72. Flashpoint, self-ignition temp and flammable range in air
    Acrolein
    Benzene
    Hydrogen cyanide
    • -15° 450° 3-31%
    • 12° 928° 1-8%
    • 0° 1,000° 12-74%
  73. CO is __ and doesnt have a __ the flammable range of CO is __ at it's ignition temp. Below __ the flammable range of CO is ___
    • Considered a gas only
    • Flashpoint
    • 12-74%
    • 300°
    • Negligible
  74. Acrolein is a by-product of the I'm complete combustion
    Of
    Wood, wood products, and other cellulosic materials.
  75. __ can also render Acrolein
    Polyethylene
  76. Most ___ release benzene while burning
    Plastics
  77. __is a common product of the burning of fuel oils
    Benzene
  78. HCN
    Hydrgen cyanide
  79. C6H6
    Benzene
  80. C3H4O
    Acrolein
  81. HCN is produced when
    High temperatures break down nitrogen-containg products
  82. Is quit flammable and is considered toxic
    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
  83. ___ extremely flammable and ultimately dictates fire behavior in a building
    Smoke
  84. Warning signs of flashover :
    • Turbulent smoke flow
    • Rollover
    • Autoignition outside
  85. Warning sign of backdraft
    • Yellowish-grey smoke
    • Bowing, black stained windows
    • Signs of extreme heat on outside of box
  86. Warning signs of smoke explosion
    • Smoke trapped above the fire
    • Growing fire
    • Smoke starting to pressurize
  87. Warnig signs of rapid fire spread
    • Increase in smoke speed
    • Smoke flowing from hallways and stairways faster than a firefighter can move
  88. Carbon monoxide is ignitable with a spark or flame at but has a
    • Around 300°
    • Small flammable range
  89. As CO heats up
    Its flammable range widens
  90. Only two things can cause smoke to pressurize...
    Heat and smoke volume
  91. Turbulent smoke flow is caused by:
    The rapid molecular expasion of the gases in the smoke and the restriction of this expasion of the box
  92. Fast moving white smoke indicates
    Smoke you see has traveled some distance
  93. White smoke that is slow or lazy
    Indicative of early stage heating
  94. Black fire sure sign of
    Impending autoignition and flashover
  95. If the building is sprinkled, then the Presents of low lying smoke can indicate that the
    fire is not controlled by the system
  96. A hot humid day should find the smoke Climbing straight up into the atmosphere; yet you see that the smoke is coming out and laying down. This indicates that the smoke
    has been cooled, either by distance or by a sprinkler system
  97. Most buildings do not allow fires to maintain...
    Thermal balance
  98. Thermal balance is the notion that heated smoke rises and in doing so creates
    A draft of cool air into the flame (heat) source.
  99. Light, thin smoke showing from more than one opening of a very large building is a
    Significant observation
  100. By watching smoke outside a building the ISO can determine
    The effectiveness of the firefight
  101. PPV as a fire attack tactic is contradicted if
    • Smoke is turbulent
    • Location of fire seat is unknown
    • Fire suspected to be in a vented, combustable void space.
  102. Once you ___ your ability to read smoke
    • Capture the basics and start practicing them
    • improves exponentially and you can read smoke in seconds
  103. Reading smoke 3 step process step 1
    View the 4 attributes compare differences from each opening should give an understanding of size, location, and spread potential and allows capture of hostile fire event
  104. Reading smoke 3 step process step 2
    analyze contributing factors see if they are affecting 4 attributes. This step should refine and/or confirm your read
  105. Reading smoke 3 step process step 3
    • Determine rate of change
    • If the rate of attribute deterioration can be measured in seconds, it is likely that fire fighters are at risk
  106. Remodeled buildings should always evoke a concern of
    Overloading

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