Body Systems - Skeletal System

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Body Systems - Skeletal System
2011-06-23 13:18:52
Review AAMA exam

Review for AAMA exam A and P
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  1. Functions of the Skeletal System
    • Provides frame and strength to the body
    • Produces body movement
    • Provides protection for organs
    • Serves as a storehouse for calcium salts
    • Produces blood cells in the bone marrow
  2. bone
    hard connective tissue impregnated with calcium substance (206 bones in the adult skeleton)
  3. cartilage
    firm connective tissue found primarily in joints, thorax walls, larynx, ariway passages, and ears
  4. ligaments
    bands of fibrous tissue that connect the articulating ends of bones to facilitate or limit movement; do not confuse ligaments with tendons, which connect muscle to bone
  5. Joints
    areas where two or more bones come together or articulate, such as the knee, shoulder, and neck
  6. Abduction
    moving away from the body midline
  7. Adduction
    moving toward the body midline
  8. Circumduction
    drawing an imaginary circle with a body structure
  9. Eversion
    turning wrists or ankles outward, away from the body
  10. extension
    bringing the limbs or phalanges toward a straight postition (the opposite of flexion) such as opening the fingers if a closed hand
  11. Flexion
    bending (the opposite of extension), such as closing the fingers of the hand
  12. Hyperextension
    extreme or abnormal extension, usually resulting in injury
  13. Inversion
    turning inside out (the opposite of eversion), such as turning the heels outso toes face each other
  14. Plantar flexion
    pointing toes downward, which flexes the arch of the foot
  15. Rotation
    turning on axis, such as turning the head to indicate "No"
  16. axial skeleton
    consists of the skull, spine, and chest
  17. cranium
  18. frontal
  19. parietal
    sides and up
  20. temporal
    lower sides
  21. mastoid process
    lower portion of the temporal bone (behind ear)
  22. styloid process
    projection inferior to the external ear
  23. zygomatic process
    upper cheek
  24. occipital
    base of skull, contains the foramen magnum (the opening in the skull that connects the spinal cord to the brain)
  25. Sphenoid
    bat-shapped, lateral eye orbits
  26. ethmoid
    bony area between the nasal cavity and orbits
  27. facial bones
    14 bones form the face
  28. nasal
    two bones that form the bridge of the nose
  29. zygomatic arch
    arch of the cheek
  30. mandible
    lower jaw
  31. maxilla
    upper jaw
  32. cervical vertebrae
    (7 vertebrae) neck bones, the first is called the atlas (supports the head); the second is called the axis (pivot for the head)
  33. Thoracic vertebrae
    (12 vertebrae) chest (mid back)attached to the posterior portion of ribs
  34. Lumbar Vertebrae
    (5 vertebrae) small of the back; heavier and larger than other vertebrae
  35. Sacrum
    (1 vertebrae) posterior of bony pelvis located between the two hip bones
  36. Coccyx
    tail bone
  37. Ribs
    12 pair of bones that make up the thorax; the bars of the cage
  38. Sternum
    breast bone that, with the ribs, protects the heart
  39. Manubrium
    top of the breast bone that joins with the clavicle and first ribs
  40. xiphoid process
    small tip at the lower end of the sternum
  41. Appendicular skeleton
    consists of the bones of the upper and lower ectremities and the girdles attaching them to the axial skeleton portion
  42. clavicle
    collar bone which joins the sternum at the anterior and the scapula laterally
  43. Scapula
    shoulder blade
  44. Humerus
    upper arm (largest arm bone)
  45. Radius
    lateral bone of the forearm (thumb side)
  46. Ulna
    medial bone of the forearm
  47. carpals
    the four bones that make up the wrist
  48. metacarpals
    the five bones of the palm of the hand
  49. phalanges
    fingers (three bones each) and thumbs (two bones each)
  50. Ilium
    superior wing-shaped portions of hip bones
  51. Ischium
    inferior portion of hip bones that supports weight when sitting
  52. Pubis
    anterior union of the hip bones
  53. Femur
    thigh bone; the body's largest, longest, strongest bone
  54. patella
    knee cap
  55. tibia
    shin bone
  56. fibula
    smaller leg bone,lateral to the tibia
  57. tarsals
    the seven ankle and foot bones (largest is the calcaneous, or heel bone)
  58. metatarsals
    the five foot bones
  59. phalanges
    toe bones (three bones each), great toes (two bones each)
  60. cleft palate
    congenital deformity caused by a malunion of the maxilla, leaving an opening in the roof of the mouth (palate)
  61. spina bifida
    congenital deformity caused by a malformation of vertebrae that exposes the spinal column
  62. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column
  63. kyphosis
    (hunchback) an excessive curvature in the thoracic portion of the vertebral column
  64. lordosis
    (swayback) excessive curvaturein the lumbar portion of the vertebral column
  65. arthritis
    inflammation of the joints
  66. osteoarthritis
    degenerative joint disease resulting in deformities and chronic pain; usually occurs as part of the aging process, but excessive joint use and trauma are also contributory factors
  67. rheumatoid arthritis
    inflammation and overgrowth of synovial membranes and joint tissues characterized by swelling of joints
  68. gout
    inflammation and pain, usually of the great toes or thumbs, caused by accumulation of uric acid cystals; the highest incidence occurs in middle aged men
  69. septic arthritis
    serious bloodstream bacterial infection attacking the joints; common pathogens are strep, staph, and tuberculosis
  70. simple
    closed fracture with no open wound
  71. compound
    open fracture with an external wound
  72. greenstick
    incomplete break or a bending of the bone, usually in children
  73. impacted
    broken ends of the bone are forced into each other
  74. comminuted
    splintering or crushing of the bone with several fragments
  75. spiral
    fracture caused by a twisting motion
  76. colles
    displaced fracture of the distal radius proximal to the wrist
  77. malignant
    cancerous tumors
  78. nonmalignant
    benign tumors such as cysts
  79. osteomylitis
    inflammation of the bone or marrow caused by pathogens
  80. Osteoporosis
    porous, brittle bones resulting from low levels of calcium salts; common in menopausal women