Micro Lecture ch12

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Micro Lecture ch12
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Micro Lecture ch12
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  1. List the defining characteristics of fungi
    • They have sexual and asexual spores
    • Fungi are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic chemoheterotrophes (do or can use oxygen and use organic chemicals for energy and carbon sources)
    • many are saprophytic (live on decaying and dead tissues)
    • Most fungi are decomposers (food spoilage), and a few are parasites of plants and animals

    Fungal colonies are described as vegetative structures because they are composed of the cells involved in catabolism and growth

    • Kingdom: Fungi
    • Nutritional Type: Chemoheterotroph
    • Multicellularity: All, except yeasts
    • Cellular Arrangement: Unicellular, filamentous, fleshy
    • Food Acquisition Method: Absorptive
    • Characteristic Features: Sexual and asexual spores
    • Embryo Formation: None

    • remember that these are all Eukaryotes so they have these characteristics too:
    • •Up to 40 µm
    • •Paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane
    • •80S ribosomes
    • •Organelles
    • •Polysaccharide cell walls
    • •Mitosis/Meiosis

    Fungi are grouped into two morphological groups: molds (and fleshy fungi) and yeasts:

    • •Molds and fleshy fungi
    • –Multicellular
    • –Made of filamentous microscopic cells called hyphae
    • – In right environmental conditions, hyphae growth becomes visible (mycelium)
    • –Reproduce by spores (sexual and asexual)

    • •Yeasts
    • –Unicellular
    • –Non-filamentous cells
    • –Reproduce by budding (dividing asymmetrically) or fission (divide symmetrically)
  2. List the four phyla of fungi described in this chapter.
    • Zygomycota =conjugation fungi
    • –Saprophytic molds (bread mold)

    • Ascomycota = sac fungi
    • –Includes molds and yeasts (like ones for brewing beer)

    • Basiciomycota = club fungi
    • –Fleshy fungi (mushrooms!)

    • “Deuteromycota” = fungi imperfecti
    • –Unknown sexual stages
    • –Include most pathogenic fungi
  3. Identify two beneficial and two harmful effects of fungi.
    Fungi are an important part of the environment for the major role they play in decomposing and recycling organic matter

    • Some beneficial effects of fungi are:
    • producing citric acid for foods and beverages
    • the yease Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used to make bread and wine; it is also genetically modified to produce a variety of proteins, including hep B vaccine
    • Trichoderma is used commercially to produce the enzyme cellulase, which is used to remove plant cell walls to produce a clear fruit juice
    • The anticancer drug taxol is produced by yew trees and the fungus Taxomyces
    • Fungi are also used as biological controls of pests

    • Some harmful effects are:
    • mold spoilage of fruits, grains, and veggies
    • The spreading chestnut tree and the American elm population have almost been wiped out because of fungus
  4. Define mycosis.
    Describe how they are defined (eg. subcutaneous, superficial…)
    • Mycosis is a fungal infection. Mycosis are generally chronic (long-lasting) infections bc fungi grow slowly
    • Mycoses are classified into 5 groups according to the degree of tissue involvment and mode of entry into the host:

    • systemic: fungal infections deep within the body. They are not restricted to any particular region of the body but can affect a number of tissues and organs. Inhalation of spores is the route of transmission; these infections typically begin in the lungs and then spread to other body tissues; not contagious
    • Two systemic mycoses: histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis

    • subcutaneous-fungal infections beneath the skin caused by saprophytic fungi that live in the soil and on vegetation. Infection occurs by direct implantation of spores or mycelial fragments into a puncture wound in the skin
    • Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous infection acquired by gardeners and farmers

    cutaneous-Fungi that infect only the epidermis, hair and nails are called dermatophytes, and their infections are called dermatomycoses or cutaneous mycoses. Dermatophytes secrete keratinase, and enzyme that degrades karatin. Infection is transmitted from human to human or from animal to human by direct contact with infected hairs and epidermal cells (as from barber shop clippers or shower room floors)

    superficial-localized along hair shafts and in superficial (surface) epidermal cells. These infections are prevalent in tropical climates

    • opportunistic-generally harmless in its normal habitat but can become pathogenic in a host who is seriously debilitated or traumatized, who is under treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, whos immune system is suppressed by drugs or by an immune disorder, or who has a lung disease
    • Pneumocystis and Stachybotrys are opportunistic pathogens

  5. Name and identify the fungal infections/diseases on the powerpoints.
    (some are also in definition part)

    • Superficial mycoses:
    • Dermatomycoses
    • -commonly caused by dermatophytes (skin loving)
    • Also called "tinea" or "ringworm" infections

    • Tinea Versicolor
    • -White irregular spots on dark skinned individuals
    • -Reddish spots if fair skinned
    • -Caused by Malazzesia furfur
    • -“Spaghetti & Meatballs”appearance in Lactophenol Cotton Blue stain

    • Subcutaneous Mycoses:
    • Sporotrichosis
    • -Caused by Sporotrix schenckii
    • - Fungi introduced via splinters and rose thorns
    • -“Rosary bead” like nodules and lesions on extremities


    • Systemic Mycoses: worst kind you can get!
    • Histoplasmosis
    • • Caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus (two shapes)
    • •Endemic in Ohio River Valley
    • •Pulmonary lesions and calcifications common in Histoplasmosis
    • • How is someone infected with H. capsulatum? The
    • fungus grows in soil and material contaminated with bat or bird droppings.Spores become airborne when contaminated soil is disturbed. Breathing the spores causes infection
  6. Define lichen.
    • a combo of a green alga (or a cyanobacterium) and a fungus.
    • Placed in the Kingdom Fungi and are classified according to the fungal partner, most often an ascomycete
    • the two organisms exist in a mutualistic relationship, in which each partner benefits; if either are separated then the lichen no longer exists
  7. List the defining characteristics of algae.
    Algae are relatively simple eukaryotic, unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular photoautotrophs that lack the tissues (roots, stem, and leaves) of plants

    • Thallus: body of a multicellular alga;
    • thalli of the larger multicellular algae, commonly called seaweeds, consists of branched holdfasts (which anchor the alga to a rock), stemlike and often hollow stipes, and leaflike blades.
  8. List the defining characteristics of protozoa.
    • •Eukaryotic
    • •Protist Kingdom
    • •Unicellular
    • Absorptive; ingestive (food acquisition method)
    • Most are motil and some form cysts

    -Protozoans are chemoheterotrophs that found in soil, water, and some reside in animal hosts.

    -Trophozoite stage - vegetative or feeding stage is frequently the cause of the pathology.

    • -Cyst stage – non-feeding and
    • resistant form that can withstand harsh environmental conditions. This is usually the infective stage.

  9. Differentiate an intermediate host from a definitive host.
    The mosquito is the definitive host because it harbors the sexually reproducing stage of Plasmodium. The host in which the parasite undergoes asexual reproduction (in this case, the human) is the intermediate host

    • book definition:
    • Definitive host: an organism that harbors the adult, sexually mature form of a parasite
    • Intermediate host: an organism that harbors the larval or asexual stage of a helminth or protozoan
  10. List the distinguishing characteristics of parasitic helminths.
    • Animilia Kingdom
    • Chemoheterotrohpic
    • multicellular
    • eukaryotic
    • generally possess digestive, circulatory, nervous, excretory, and reproductive systems
    • may lack a digestive system (they can absorb nutrients from the host's food, body fluids, and tissues)
    • their nervous system is reduced
    • their means of locomotion is occasionally reduced or completely lacking
    • their reproductive system is often complex (can reproduce sexually or asexually)
  11. List the characteristics of the two classes of parasitic helminths, and give an example of each.
    • Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and
    • Nematoda (roundworms)
  12. Compare and contrast platyhelminthes and nematodes and diseases they cause.
    • Flatworms (platyhelminthes) are dorsoventrally flattened animals; parasitic flatworms may lack a digestive system.
    • Adult trematodes, or flukes, have an oral and ventral sucker with which they attach to host tissue.
    • A cestode, or tapeworm, consists of a scolex (head) and proglottids.
    • Humans serve as the definitive host for the beef tapeworm, and cattle are the intermediate host.
    • Humans serve as the definitive host and can be an intermediate host for the pork tapeworm.
    • Humans serve as the intermediate host for Echinococcus granulosus; the definitive hosts are dogs, wolves, and foxes.

    • Roundworms (nematodes) have a complete digestive system.
    • The nematodes that infect humans with their eggs are Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) and Ascaris lumbricoides.
    • The nematodes that infect humans with their larvae are Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and anisakine worms.
  13. Define arthropod vector.
    • Jointed-legged animals, including ticks and insects, belong to the Phylum Arthropoda.
    • Arthropods that carry diseases are called vectors.
    • Elimination of vectorborne diseases is best done by the control or eradication of the vectors.
  14. Differentiate between a tick and a mosquito, and name a disease transmitted by each
    Ticks are classifed in arachnida

    Mosquitoes are classified in Insecta
  15. Fungi
    a eukaryotic absorptive chemoheterotroph chemoheterotroph
  16. mycology
    the study of multicellular fungi and yeasts
  17. Funal allergens
    -“Sick Building Syndrome” is caused by a black mold growing on damp cellulose parts of buildings, Stachybotrys chartarum

    -Considered as an EID, it causes Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome in infants.
  18. Mycetismus
    -Brought about by ingestion of hallucinogen producing and poisonous mushrooms

    -Muscarin a hallucinogen is produced by Amanita muscaria

    -Death cap is associated with a poisonous mushroom, Amanita phalloides
  19. mycosis
    any fungal infection

    • Epidemiology of Mycoses
    • •Fungi and their spores are found almost everywhere in the environment. You can’t avoid them.
    • •It is your resistance barriers that keeps you
    • safe from fungal infection.
    • •Mycoses are typically acquired via inhalation, trauma or ingestion
    • •Only very infrequently are they spread from
    • person to person.
    • •Still, epidemics of mycosis can and do occur,
    • but typically through mass exposure (like bird droppings in or near the ventilation system of a building).
    • •Since most mycoses are not contagious, they
    • are typically not reportable other than when there or epidemics or when they effect a specific population (such as AIDS patients).
  20. systemic mycoses
    fungal infections deep within the body

    Systemic mycoses: Fungi are inhaled into the lungs and subsequently are transported to other internal organs, usually through the bloodstream.
  21. subcutaneous mycoses
    fungal infections beneath the skin

    Subcutaneous mycoses: Fungus must be traumatically implanted (via wound) into the body.
  22. cutaneous mycoses
    infection of the epidermis, hair and nails

    Cutaneous Mycoses: Fungi infects skin, mucus membranes, hair, and/or nails and secretes metabolites into the skin. Person is definitely aware of the infection. An example of this is Epidermophyton floccosum, one of the causes of athlete's foot.
  23. superficial mycoses
    localized along hair shafts and in superficial (surface) epidermal cells

    Superficial Mycoses: Most patients are not even aware that they have condition. Fungi is only growing on dead skin, hair and nails. Fungus never secretes metabolites into the body.
  24. Mycotoxicosis
    -Brought about by eating food contaminated with or exposure to fungal toxins

    -Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus is associated with liver diseases such as hepatoma
  25. opportunistic pathogen
    generally harmless in its normal habittat but can become pathogenic in a host who is seriously debilitated or traumatized

    • True fungal pathogens vs. opportunistic fungi
    • •There are only four species of fungi that are
    • considered true pathogens…

    • - Blastomyces dermatiditis
    • - Coccidioides immitis
    • - Histoplamsa capsulatum
    • - Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
    • … the rest are considered opportunistic.

    What’s the difference?

    • •Pathogenic fungi have the ability to actively attack and invade tissues of healthy individuals. They have specific enzymes and proteins that help them survive and reproduce within the body.
    • •Opportunistic fungi do not cause disease in healthy individuals, but can cause disease in those with a weakened immune system.
  26. algae
    • a photosynthetic eukaryote; may be unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular but lack the tissues found in plants
    • Most are photoautotrophs
    • •Includes:
    • –Brown Algae
    • –Red Algae
    • –Green Algae
    • –Diatoms
    • –Dinoflagellates
    • –Water molds
  27. red tide
    a bloom of planktonic dinoflagellates
  28. protozoa
    unicellular eukaryotic organisms; usually chemoheterotrophic

    Can be distinuished by their morphology

    • Taxa of Protozoan:
    • Archaezoa: lack mitochondria, move by flagella,
    • digestive tract symbionts
    • One pathogenic species that feed off the intestinal lining is Giardia intestinalis .
    • Infection results from eating food / drinking water which has been contaminated by the organism - usually from feces.
    • A large number generates inflammation, which causes nausea, stomach ache and diarrhea. Chronic infestation may result in malnourishment, blocking absorption of food across their intestinal wall.
    • Trichomonas vaginalis (no cyst stage) lives in the human vagina but its numbers are usually controlled by the acidic vaginal environment. If vaginal environment becomes more basic, thrive and potentially cause sterility.

    • Microspora: lack mitochondria, obligate intracellular
    • parasites

    • Amoebozoa: called amoeba because of how they move; move by psuedopods, free living
    • Eat and move by extending parts of their bodies to form pseudopods.
    • Can live in many places around human body, but mostly found in the intestine.
    • The majority of the intestinal amoebae live inside us without causing significant problems.
    • Entamoeba histolytica feeds on the lining of the gut.
    • Irritation created can lead to condition known as amoebic dysentery. Contracted by eating or drinking fecally contaminated food or water.

    • Percolozoa: can transform between amoeba, flagellated and encysted stages
    • In the summer of 2007 several deaths occurred
    • from meningoencephalitis caused by the protist Naegleria fowleri a parasitic microorganism that feeds on brain tissue.
    • •Infection very rare, but nearly always fatal.
    • •Cases most often occur during the dry, hot summer months, when water is warm and at low levels.
    • •Enters body through the nose; invades CNS by penetrating the olfactory mucosa and nasal tissues.
    • •Early infections: necrosis (tissue death) and hemorrhaging in the olfactory bulbs.
    • •Amoeba then climbs along nerve fibers through the floor of the cranium, into the brain.
    • Where Is Naegleria Found?
    • •Worldwide distribution, typically found in warm fresh water, temperatures ranging from 77– 95 F.
    • How to Reduce Your Risk
    • •Infection usually follows water-related activities (swimming underwater, diving, or any water sport that results in water going up the nose).
    • •Infection can only result from exposure to the amoeba’s environment, not from person-to-person contact.

    • Apicomplexa: non-motile, obligate intracellular
    • parasites
    • Plasmodium spp.cause the disease malaria (one of the most death causing pathogenic species of fungi).
    • • Now mostly confined to the tropics.
    • Spread by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito.
    • • In human body, malarial parasites mostly infect the red blood cells.
    • Schizogony (ski-zog’-oh-knee). Multiple nuclear divisions make multinucleate cell. Then cell quickly divides into many, causing the host cell to burst, whereupon the parasites find the next cell to infect.
    • • Symptoms periodic fevers. Coincide with the time the red cells burst to release the parasites (they all tend to do this at once).

    • Cliliophora: move by cilia; may be own phylum with dinoflagellates and apicomplexa (Alveolates)
    • • Move by beating thousands of hair-like structures called cilia.
    • • Cilia are also used by some species to secure
    • food.
    • • Only one species of pathogenic ciliate known to parasitize humans : Balantidium coli.
    • • Colonizes large intestine and causes diarrhea.

    • Euglenozoa: asexual reproduction
    • •Move by flagella
    • •Photoautotrophs (these dont cause any pathogenic diseases)
    • •Chemoheterotrophs (these do)
    • Trypanosoma: Undulating membrane, transmitted by vectors. African sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease is spread by the bite of the tsetse fly.
    • Leishmania: Flagellated form in sand fly vector, ovoid form in vertebrate host.
  29. helminths
    • a parasitic roundworm or flatworm
    • Animal parasites
    • - Helminths are the parasitic worms studied in Parasitology
    • -Eukaryotic, chemoheterotrophic, multicellular animals
    • -Can reproduce sexually (male and female) or as hermaphrodites

    • Broken up into two main phylums:
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
    • Trematodes
    • Cestodes
    • Phylum: Nematoda (roundworms)

    • Life cycle of Helminths:
    • Monoecious (hermaphroditic)
    • –Male and female reproductive systems in one animal

    • •Dioecious
    • –Separate male and female

    Whether they are monoecious or Diocious they start out as an Egg turns into larva(e) then metamorphasize into adult
  30. Platyhelminths
    flatworms
  31. Trematodes
    • flukes
    • often have flat, leaf-shaped bodies with a ventral sucker and an oral sucker

    •Trematodes are the blood flukes that use humans as the definitive host. Definitive hosts carry reproducing adults.

    • -Schistosomiasis is caused by:
    • Schistosoma mansoni
    • S. haematobium
    • S. japonicum
    • -Reproduces and lays eggs in humans (when humans eat crayfish), then come out thru our feces, which go into water where snails ingest them. they then use the snails where their asexual reproduction occurs.

  32. Cestodes
    tapeworms

    •Bodies of Cestodes or tapeworms consist of scolex (head) for attachment and proglottids (flat body segments)

    • •Use humans as intermediate host (which means we just carry one of their life cycle stages). (unlike the trematodes that use us as the definitive host-which is the wolf for the tapeworm)
    • -Taenia solium – pork tapeworm
    • -Taenia saginata –beef tapeworm
    • -Tapeworms acquire nutrition by absorption through their cuticle.

  33. Nematodes
    • roundworms
    • The hookworms
    • •Hookworms are the second most common nematode infecting humans (800 million worldwide)

    • Three main species:
    • -Ancylostoma duodenale
    • -Necator americanus
    • -Trichinella spiralis

    • -Infection is acquired by larval penetration of the host
    • -Adult worms attach to intestinal mucosa and
    • feed on blood of host causing anemia

    • One common nematodes: Trichinosis (we get these by eating undercooked pork)

    • Another nematodes where the egg is infective rather then the larvae: Enterobius vermicularis (pinworms)
    • To get them we must ingest both male and females thru us ingesting fecal matters
  34. Arthropod
    • animals characterized by segmented bodies hard external skeletons, and jointed legs
    • "the disease carrier"

    some arthropod vectors:

    • Human louse can carry Epidemic typhus and a relapsing fever
    • Rat fleas have caused the Murine typhus and the black plague
    • Deer fly have been known to carry Tuleremia (bacterial disease)
    • Kissing bugs can carry Chaga' disease (tropical disease)
  35. vector
    pathogenic microorganisms carried by arthropods

    • -Biological vectors (support replication of the pathogen)
    • -Mechanical vectors (simply move the pathogen..doesnt help the pathogen)
  36. hyphae
    • a long filament of microscopic cells in fungi or actinomycetes
    • in right environmental conditions, hyphae growth becomes visible (mycelium)
  37. lichen
    a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium

    • •Alga produces and secretes carbohydrates; fungus provides holdfast.
    • •Classified by the fungal species.
    • Very rarely pathogenic; if they are pathogenic, usually its of the skin
  38. dinoflagellate
    • Dinoflagellates are grouped in with the algae
    • •Cellulose in plasma membrane
    • •Unicellular
    • •Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthins
    • •Store starch
    • •Some are symbionts in marine animals
    • •Neurotoxins cause paralytic shellfish poisoning

    • Dinoflagellates and health
    • -Dinoflagellates of Gymnodinium and Gonyaulax spp. are associated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. Their algal bloom is popularly referred to as Red Tide.
  39. definitive host
    an organism that harbors the adult, sexually mature form a parasite
  40. intermediate host
    an organism that harbors the larval or asexual stage of a helminth or protozoan
  41. scolex
    the head of a tapeworm, containing suckers and possibly hooks
  42. proglottids
    a body segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female organs
  43. Cyst
    a sac with a distinct wall containing fluid or other material; also a protective capsule of some protozoa
  44. trophozoite
    the vegetative form of a protozoan
  45. The Archeae you don't have to worry about too much, they are the ancient bacteria and never make people sick!
    The Prokarya are the bacteria.
    The bacteria are split into two main groups: Gram positive and Gram negative.
    The Gram positive are only split twice into Firmicutes and Actinobacteria.
    The gram negatives have 8 total groups although 3 don't have any disease causing species because they are photosynthetic (like plants).
    The largest group of disease causing Gram negatives is the Proteobacteria. The complete list of the other gram negative groups is in Ch10 lecture. YOU WILL NEED TO KNOW THE GROUPS.... not the names of the bacterial species.
    The domain Eukarya (eukaryotes with nucleus and organelles) has four main groups called kingdoms.

    • The animals,
    • plants (no diseases!),
    • fungi and
    • protists (protozoans).

    In Ch12 I cover disease causing members of each of these. An exampe of a test question might be:

    • Malassezia furfur causes a skin infection. What taxonomic group does this organism belong to?
    • The answer to the Malassezia furfur taxonomic group is Fungi.
  46. Test Question:

    Monecious helminths reproduce with:

    A. spores
    B. binary fission
    C. eggs and sperm
    D. cysts
    C. eggs and sperm

    Monecious means hermaphroditic-which means one animal has both male and female reproductive organs (reproductive organs use eggs and sperm)
    besides all that, helminths are in the Kingdom Animalia..so the first three answers wouldn't make sense
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Test Question:

    Which one of the following does NOT belong with the others?

    A. Trichonella
    B. Enterobius
    C. Shistosoma
    D. Candida
    D. Candida

    The first three are from the Parasitic Helminths catagory while Candida is a virus (confirm by reading the definitions I have up there for Trematodes and Nematodes)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Test Question:

    If a larva of Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is found in humans, humans are the ___

    A. Reservoir
    B. Intermediate host
    C. Definitive host
    D. Infected host
    B. Intermediate host

    Definitive hosts carry the adult, or sexually mature form of a parasite while the intermediate host carries the larval or asexual stage
    The other two are irrelavant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Test Question:

    Sporotrix is a fungus. Which is NOT true about this organism?

    A. it is a systemic fungus
    B. it is a human pathogen
    C. it is found in garden soil
    D. it can form spores
    A. it is a systemic fungus

    it is subcutaneous mycoses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Test Question:

    A mycelium is

    a. a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a plant
    b. a specialized reproductive structure of a fungus
    c. a partition between the cells of a fungal hyphae
    d. a mass of conneccted fungal hyphae
    d. a mass of connected funal hyphae

    a. a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a plant is a Lichen
  51. Test Question:

    Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

    A. Plasmodium = Malaria
    B. a Dinoflagellates = paralytic shellfish poisoning
    C. Trichonella = superficial fungus
    D. Lichen = symbiotic relationship
    C. Trichonella = superficial fungus

    Trichonella is a nematode
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Test Question: fill in the blank

    Spores are used by fungi for
    reproduction
  53. Test Question: fill in the blank

    give the scientific names for one of the two major groups of parasitic helmiths
    nematodes or platyhelminths
  54. Test Question: fill in the blank

    A mycosis that occurs in a keratin rich tissue such as skin, nails or hairs is called a(n) ___ mycosis
    cutaneous
  55. Test Question: fill in the blank

    Histoplasmosis is an example of a(n) ____ mycosis
    systemic
  56. Test Question: fill in the blank

    Filamentous fungal cells are called
    hyphae
  57. Test Question:

    Name one of the parasitic helminthes we studied. In what organisms are the eggs, larvae and adult found?

    long answer
    please refer back to the flashcards. this may be a good long answer question to know!
  58. Test Question: some of these may go back to ch10, such as this one

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are not in the same order. This indicates that which one of the following is not sufficient to assign an organism to a taxon?

    A. amino acid sequencing
    B. serology
    C. biochemical characteristics
    D. morphological characteristics
    E. phage typing
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Test Question:

    Which of the following is not true about scientific nomenclature?

    A. names vary with geographical location
    B. each name consists of a genus and specific epithet
    C. it was first designed by Linnaeus
    D. each name is specific
    E. the names are standardized
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Test Question:

    The phylogenetic relationship in proteobacteria is based on

    A. rRNA studies
    B. mRNA studies
    C. tRNA studies
    D. PCR studies
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Test Question:

    You could identify an unknown bacterium by all of the following except

    A. specific antibodies aggluting the unknown
    B. percentage of guanine + cytosine
    C. biochemical testing
    D. ribosomal RNA sequencing
    E. RFLP fingerprint analysis
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Test Question:

    Viruses cannot be classified in a kingdom because

    A. viruses direct anabolic pathways of host cells
    B. viruses are obligate parasites
    C. viruses are not composed of cells
    D. some viruses can incorporate their genome into a host's genome
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Test Question:

    Which of the following is used to classify organisms into the Kingdom Fungi?

    A. unicellular; possess a cell wall; prokaryotic
    B. ability to photosynthesize; possess a cell wall
    C. unicellular; lacking cell wall; eukaryotic
    D. absorptive; possess cell wall; eukaryotic
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Test Question:

    All of the following are fungi EXCEPT:

    A. molds
    B. Paramecium
    C. mushrooms
    D. Malessezia
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Test Question:

    All of the following groups of algae produce substances that are toxic to humans EXCEPT

    A. dinoflagellates
    B. red algae
    C. green algae
    D. diatoms
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Test Question:

    Which of the following statements about yeasts are true?
    (1) Yeasts are fungi.
    (2) Yeasts reproduce asexually by budding.
    (3) Yeasts are facultatively anaerobic.
    (4) All yeasts are pathogenic.
    (5) Allyeasts are unicellular.


    A. 1, 2, 3, 5
    B. 3, 4, 5
    C. 1, 3, 4
    D. 1, 2, 3
    E. 2, 3, 4, 5
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Test Question:



    Into which group would you place a multicellular organism that has a mouth and lives inside the human liver?

    A. fungi
    B. Histoplasma
    C. platyhelminthes
    D. firmicutes
    E. nematoda
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Test Question:

    Fleas are the intermediate host for Dipylidium caninum tapeworm, and dogs are the definitive host. Which stage of the parasite could be found in the flea?

    A. larva
    B. scolex
    C. proglottids
    D. adult
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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