Cardiovascular System: Diagnostic Terms

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pugluv01
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91681
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Cardiovascular System: Diagnostic Terms
Updated:
2011-06-23 14:30:47
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medterm ch7 quiz3
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Quiz 3
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  1. arrhythmia
    any of several kinds of irregularity or loss or rhythm of the heartbeat
  2. dysrhythmia
    • bradycardia
    • fibrillation
    • flutter
    • heart block
    • premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
    • tachycardia
  3. bradycardia
    slow heart rate (<60 beats/minute)
  4. fibrillation
    chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart
  5. flutter
    extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart
  6. heart block
    an interference with the normal electrical conduction of the heart defined by the location of the block
  7. premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
    a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node (pacemaker)
  8. tachycardia
    fast heart rate (>100 beats/minute)
  9. arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
    a degenerative condition of the arteries characterized by thickening of the inner lining, loss of elasticity, and susceptibilty to rupture
  10. bacterial endocarditis
    a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
  11. cardiac tamponade
    compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart
  12. cardiomyopathy
    a general term for disease of the heart muscle
  13. congenital anomaly of the heart
    malformations of the heart present at birth

    • Includes:
    • - atrial septal defect (ASD)
    • - coarctation of the aorta
    • - patent ductus arteriosus
    • - tetralogy of Fallot
    • - ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  14. atrial septal defect (ASD)
    an opening in the septum separating the atria
  15. coarctation of the aorta
    narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
  16. patent ductus arteriosus
    an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by the failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth
  17. tetralogy of Fallot
    • an anomaly that consists of four defects:
    • pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, malposition of the aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy - causes the blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation so that deoxygenation blood goes into the systemic circulation, resulting in cyanosis
  18. ventricular septal defect
    an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
  19. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portions of the body
  20. left ventricle failure
    failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portions of the body
  21. cor pulmonale
    a condition of enlargement of the right ventricle as a result of chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
  22. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium - most often caused by atherosclerosis
  23. hypertension (HTN)
    persistently high blood pressure
  24. essential (primary) hypertension
    high blood pressure attributed to no single cause, but risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
  25. secondary hypertension
    high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease
  26. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    protrusion of one or borth cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
  27. myocardial infarction (MI)
    heart attack; death of myocardial tissue (infarction) owing to loss of blood flow (ischemia) as a result of an occlusion (plugging) of a coronary artery
  28. myocarditis
    inflammation of the myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
  29. pericarditis
    inflammation of the pericardium
  30. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
  31. rheumatic heart disease
    damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever
  32. thrombophlebitis
    inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
  33. varicose veins
    abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves, most often seen in the legs
  34. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body

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